• Acceptability and Utilisation of Services for Voluntary Counselling [corrected] and Testing and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Kahsey Abera Hospital, Humera, Tigray, Ethiopia.

      Reilley, B; Hiwot, Z G; Mesure, J; Medecins sans Frontieres USA, 333 Seventh Avenue, 2nd floor 1001-5004, New York, USA. (2004-07)
      OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted to assess the acceptability and utilization of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) services in Kahsey Abera Hospital, Humera. METHODS: Retrospective data was taken from hospital consultation logbooks from January 2002 to February 2003, and focus group discussions were conducted in March 2003 in the community. RESULTS: While the services were known and utilization is increasing, important misconceptions about the medical services, disease transmission, and STI treatment persist. Although hospital care was generally considered of high quality, persons often go to pharmacies to self-treat for STIs due to concerns about confidentiality, and the stigma of HIV deters many from wanting to know their serostatus. CONCLUSIONS: Additional education is needed on HIV/AIDS, STIs, and the medical services provided. Education may make use of community health workers or outreach workers in a small group where participants can feel comfortable to ask sensitive questions. HIV/AIDS treatment is planned for the near future and may be significant in reducing HIV/AIDS stigma.
    • Factors associated with Condom Use Problems during Vaginal Sex with main and non-main partners

      DʼAnna, L H; Korosteleva, O; Warner, L; Douglas, J; Paul, S; Metcalf, C; McIlvaine, E; Malotte, C K; California State University, Long Beach, Center for Health Care Innovation, and Department of Math and Statistics, LongBeach, CA 90840, USA. laura.d’anna@csulb.edu (2012-09-01)
      Incorrect condom use is a common problem that can undermine their prevention impact. We assessed the prevalence of 2 condom use problems, breakage/slippage and partial use, compared problems by partnership type, and examined associations with respondent, partner, and partnership characteristics.
    • Frequency of sexually transmitted infections and related factors in Pweto, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2004

      Luque Fernández, M A; Bauernfeind, A; Palma, P P; Ruiz Pérez, I; Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública, Granada, España. watzilei@hotmail.com (2008-07-08)
      OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of genital ulcer and urethral discharge in Pweto, Democratic Republic of Congo, and to analyze the association between the estimated prevalence and age, marital status, profession, and number of sexual partners. METHODS: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study through a survey conducted in May 2004 in a representative sample of 106 men in Pweto aged between 15 and 65 years old, with a precision of 9.5%. Questionnaire items about current or previous ulceration and urethral discharge where self-reported and referred to the previous year as of the date of the survey. To study the associations, crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence was 39.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30-49) for urethral discharge and 33% (95%CI, 24-42) for genital ulcer. Soldiers were identified as a risk group independently of age, the number of sexual partners during the previous year, and marital status. The multivariate analysis showed an adjusted OR of 3.25 (95%CI, 1.10-9.95) (p < 0.05) for the frequency of urethral discharge in soldiers compared with other professions. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in Pweto and the associated factors identified prompted the initiation of a controlled condom donation program for soldiers. In conflict situations with a high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and lack of health services, humanitarian aid organizations should implement prevention activities focused on risk groups.
    • Health seeking and sexual behaviour in patients with sexually transmitted infections: the importance of traditional healers in Thyolo, Malawi.

      Zachariah, R; Nkhoma, W; Harries, A D; Arendt, V; Chantulo, A; Spielmann M P; Mbereko, M; Buhendwa, L; Médecins Sans Frontières, Luxembourg, Thyolo District, Malawi. msflblantyre@malawi.net (BMJ Journals, 2002-04)
      OBJECTIVES: To describe health seeking and sexual behaviour including condom use among patients presenting with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and, to identify sociodemographic and behavioural risk factors associated with "no condom use" during the symptomatic period. METHODS: A cross sectional study of consecutive new STI cases presenting at the district STI clinic in Thyolo, Malawi. They were interviewed by STI counsellors after obtaining informed consent. All patients were treated according to national guidelines. RESULTS: Out of 498 new STI clients, 53% had taken some form of medication before coming to the STI clinic, the most frequent alternative source being the traditional healer (37%). 46% of all clients reported sex during the symptomatic period (median 14 days), the majority (74%) not using condoms. 90% of all those who had not used condoms resided in villages and had seen only the traditional healer. Significant risk factors associated with "no condom use" included visiting a traditional healer, being female, having less than 8 years of school education, and being resident in villages. Genital ulcer disease (GUD) was the most common STI in males (49%) while in females this comprised 27% of STIs. CONCLUSIONS: These findings, and especially the extremely high GUD prevalence is of particular concern, considering the high national HIV prevalence in Malawi (9%) and the implications for STI and HIV transmission. There is an urgent need to integrate traditional healers in control activities, encourage their role in promoting safer sexual behaviour, and to reorient or even change existing strategies on condom promotion and STI control.
    • HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, in 2002.

      Vandepitte, J M; Malele, F; Kivuvu, D M; Edidi, S; Muwonga, J; Lepira, F; Abdellati, S; Kabamba, J; Van Overloop, C; Buvé, A; et al. (2007-04)
      OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, in 2002. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted among FSWs presenting for the first time at the STI clinic of Matonge, Kinshasa. The women were interviewed about sociodemographic characteristics, type of sex work, and sexual behavior. Blood was taken for HIV, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus type 2 serology. Vaginal secretions were collected on swabs for the diagnosis of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis. RESULTS: The overall HIV prevalence was 12.4% but varied within the different categories of FSWs: 11.8% in hotel-based, 24.0% in home-based, and 20.0% in street-based FSWs; 10.0% in homeless FSWs; and 6.6% in Masquées (clandestine sex workers). The overall herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence was 58.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HIV and other STIs seems to have stabilized since the beginning of the project in 1988.
    • Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexual Behaviour Among Commercial Sex Workers in a Rural District of Malawi.

      Zachariah, R; Spielmann M P; Harries, A D; Nkhoma, W; Chantulo, A; Arendt, V; Médecins sans Frontières - Luxembourg, Thyolo District, Malawi. Zachariah@internet.ln (2003-03)
      In Thyolo District, Malawi, a study was conducted among commercial sex workers (CSWs) attending mobile clinics in order to; determine the prevalence and pattern of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), describe sexual behaviour among those who have an STI and identify risk factors associated with 'no condom use'. There were 1817 CSWs, of whom 448 (25%) had an STI. Of these, the commonest infections included 237 (53%) cases of abnormal vaginal discharge, 109 (24%) cases of pelvic inflammatory disease and 95 (21%) cases of genital ulcer disease (GUD). Eighty-seven per cent had sex while symptomatic, 17% without condoms. Having unprotected sex was associated with being married, being involved with commercial sex outside a known rest-house or bar, having a GUD, having fewer than two clients/day, alcohol intake and having had no prior medication for STI. The high levels of STIs, particularly GUDs, and unprotected sex underlines the importance of developing targeted interventions for CSWs and their clients.