• Accuracy of five algorithms to diagnose gambiense human African trypanosomiasis.

      Checchi, F; Chappuis, F; Karunakara, U; Priotto, G; Chandramohan, D; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom. Francesco.checchi@lshtm.ac.uk (2011-07)
      Algorithms to diagnose gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness) are often complex due to the unsatisfactory sensitivity and/or specificity of available tests, and typically include a screening (serological), confirmation (parasitological) and staging component. There is insufficient evidence on the relative accuracy of these algorithms. This paper presents estimates of the accuracy of five algorithms used by past Médecins Sans Frontières programmes in the Republic of Congo, Southern Sudan and Uganda.
    • Availability and affordability of treatment for Human African Trypanosomiasis.

      Etchegorry, M; Helenport, J; Pecoul, B; Jannin, J; Legros, D; Médecins Sans Frontières, 8 Rue Saint Sabin, Paris. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2001-11)
      Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a re-emerging disease whose usual treatments are becoming less efficient because of the increasing parasite resistance. Availability of HAT drugs is poor and their production in danger because of technical, ecological and economic constraints. In view of this dramatic situation, a network involving experts from NGOs, WHO and pharmaceutical producers was commissioned with updating estimates of need for each HAT drug for the coming years; negotiations with potential producers of new drugs such as eflornithine; securing sustainable manufacturing of existing drugs; clinical research into new combinations of these drugs for first and second-line treatments; centralizing drug purchases and their distribution through a unique non-profit entity; and addressing regulatory and legal issues concerning new drugs.
    • Card Agglutination Test for Trypanosomiasis (CATT) End-Dilution Titer and Cerebrospinal Fluid Cell Count as Predictors of Human African Trypanosomiasis (Trypanosoma brucei gambiense) Among Serologically Suspected Individuals in Southern Sudan.

      Chappuis, F; Stivanello, E; Adams, K; Kidane, S; Pittet, A; Bovier, P A; Médecins Sans Frontières, Swiss Section, Geneva, Switzerland. francois.chappuis@hcuge.ch (Published by: American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2004-09)
      The diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense relies on an initial serologic screening with the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT) for T. b. gambiense, followed by parasitologic confirmation in most endemic areas. Unfortunately, field parasitologic methods lack sensitivity and the management of serologically suspected individuals (i.e., individuals with a positive CATT result but negative parasitology) remains controversial. In Kajo-Keji County in southern Sudan, we prospectively collected sociodemographic and laboratory data of a cohort of 2,274 serologically suspected individuals. Thirty-three percent (n = 749) attended at least one follow-up visit and HAT was confirmed in 64 (9%) cases. Individuals with lower initial CATT-plasma (CATT-P) end-dilution titers had lowest risks (10.4 and 13.8/100 person-years for 1:4 and 1:8 titers, respectively) that significantly increased for higher dilutions: relative risks = 5.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.6-9.5) and 4.6 (95% CI = 2.8-9.8) for 1:16 and 1:32 titers, respectively. The cumulative yearly risk was also high (76%) in individuals found with 11-20 cells in the cerebrospinal fluid, but this involved only eight patients. Adjustment for potential confounders did not affect the results. In conclusion, treatment with pentamidine should be considered for all serologically suspected individuals with a CATT-P end-dilution titer >/= 1:16 in areas of a moderate to high prevalence of HAT.
    • Chagas disease knocks on our door: a cross-sectional study among Latin American immigrants in Milan, Italy.

      Antinori, S; Galimberti, L; Grande, R; Bianco, R; Oreni, L; Traversi, L; Ricaboni, D; Bestetti, G; Lai, A; Mileto, D; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-12-01)
      OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors for Chagas disease (CD) in Latin American immigrants and to evaluate the accuracy of diagnostic tests. Moreover, we offered to all positive subjects a complete free-of-charge clinical/instrumental evaluation as well as benznidazole treatment in order to stage the disease and verify drug tolerability. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of CD among Latin Americans living in Milan and its metropolitan area was conducted between July 2013 and July 2014. Blood samples were tested for serologic evidence of CD together with a questionnaire covering demographic and clinical-epidemiological information. RESULTS: Forty-eight (9.6%) of the 501 tested subjects were conclusively diagnosed as having CD. The highest prevalence of CD was among those from Bolivia (43/169, 25.4%) and El Salvador (4/68, 5.9%). Older age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)] 1.05, p =0.004), a Bolivian origin (aOR 8.80; p =0.003), being born in the department of Santa Cruz (aOR 3.72, p =0.047), having lived in mud houses (aOR 2.68; p =0.019), and having an affected relative (aOR 12.77, p =0.001) were independently associated with CD. The ARCHITECT Chagas test showed the highest sensitivity (100%) and specificity (99.8%). Twenty-nine of the subjects with CD (60.4%) underwent disease staging, 10 of whom (35.7%) showed cardiac and/or digestive involvement. Benznidazole treatment was associated with high frequency of adverse reactions (19/27, 70.4%) and permanent discontinuation (8/27, 29.6%). CONCLUSIONS: CD is highly prevalent among Bolivians and Salvadorans living in Milan. Regions with a large Latin American immigrant population should implement programmes of active detection and treatment.
    • Challenges of controlling sleeping sickness in areas of violent conflict: experience in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

      Tong, J; Valverde, O; Mahoudeau, C; Yun, O; Chappuis, F; Médecins Sans Frontières, Rue de Lausanne 78, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland. jacquitong@yahoo.co.uk. (BioMed Central, 2011-05-26)
      Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is a fatal neglected tropical disease if left untreated. HAT primarily affects people living in rural sub-Saharan Africa, often in regions afflicted by violent conflict. Screening and treatment of HAT is complex and resource-intensive, and especially difficult in insecure, resource-constrained settings. The country with the highest endemicity of HAT is the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), which has a number of foci of high disease prevalence. We present here the challenges of carrying out HAT control programmes in general and in a conflict-affected region of DRC. We discuss the difficulties of measuring disease burden, medical care complexities, waning international support, and research and development barriers for HAT.
    • Clinical Presentation and Treatment Outcome of Sleeping Sickness in Sudanese Pre-School Children.

      Eperon, G; Schmid, C; Loutan, L; Chappuis, F; Médecins Sans Frontières, Rue de Lausanne 78, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland. (2007-01)
      BACKGROUND: Existing data on human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense among children are limited. Here, we described the demographic, clinical, diagnostic, treatment and outcome characteristics of HAT in pre-school children from Kajo-Keji County, South Sudan in comparison with older patients. METHODS: We did a retrospective analysis of HAT patients treated at the Kiri Sleeping Sickness Treatment Centre (SSTC), Kajo-Keji County, from June 2000 to December 2002. RESULTS: Of 1958 HAT patients, 119 (6.1%) were pre-school children (<6 years) including 56 (47%) in first-stage illness and 63 (53%) in second-stage. The proportion of children in second-stage HAT was significantly higher in very young children (<2 years). Walking and speech disturbances were more frequent in second-stage HAT but other neurological symptoms and signs were not associated with disease stage. Pentamidine treatment for first-stage illness was very safe and effective among pre-school children. In contrast, 4.9% of pre-school children in second-stage illness died during melarsoprol treatment and 46% had > or = 1 severe adverse event(s). Macular rash, jaundice and skin necrosis on injection site were significantly more frequent in this age group (p<0.05). Melarsoprol-induced encephalopatic syndrome was less frequent but more severe than in older age groups. CONCLUSION: The clinical features of T. b. gambiense HAT among pre-school children are insufficiently stage-specific. Therefore, laboratory-based staging is mandatory to prevent unnecessary harm to HAT patients caused by the high toxicity of melarsoprol.
    • Early prediction of treatment efficacy in Second-Stage Gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis

      Priotto, G; Chappuis, F; Bastard, M; Flevaud, L; Etard, J-F; Epicentre, Paris, France. gpriotto@neuf.fr (2012-06-05)
      Human African trypanosomiasis is fatal without treatment. The long post-treatment follow-up (24 months) required to assess cure complicates patient management and is a major obstacle in the development of new therapies. We analyzed individual patient data from 12 programs conducted by Médecins Sans Frontières in Uganda, Sudan, Angola, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo and Democratic Republic of Congo searching for early efficacy indicators.
    • Effectiveness of a 10-day melarsoprol schedule for the treatment of late-stage human African trypanosomiasis: confirmation from a multinational study (IMPAMEL II).

      Schmid, C; Richer, M; Bilenge, C M M; Josenando, T; Chappuis, F; Manthelot, C R; Nangouma, A; Doua, F; Asumu, P; Simarro, P; et al. (Infectious Diseases Society of America and University of Chicago Press, 2005-06-01)
      BACKGROUND: Treatment of late-stage human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) with melarsoprol can be improved by shortening the regimen. A previous trial demonstrated the safety and efficacy of a 10-day treatment schedule. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this schedule in a noncontrolled, multinational drug-utilization study. METHODS: A total of 2020 patients with late-stage HAT were treated with the 10-day melarsoprol schedule in 16 centers in 7 African countries. We assessed outcome on the basis of major adverse events and the cure rate after treatment and during 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: The cure rate 24 h after treatment was 93.9%; 2 years later, it was 86.2%. However, 49.3% of patients were lost to follow-up. The overall fatality rate was 5.9%. Of treated patients, 8.7% had an encephalopathic syndrome that was fatal 45.5% of the time. The rate of severe bullous and maculopapular eruptions was 0.8% and 6.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The 10-day treatment schedule was well implemented in the field and was effective. It reduces treatment duration, drug amount, and hospitalization costs per patient, and it increases treatment-center capacity. The shorter protocol has been recommended by the International Scientific Council for Trypanosomiasis Research and Control for the treatment of late-stage HAT caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.
    • Effectiveness of melarsoprol and eflornithine as first-line regimens for gambiense sleeping sickness in nine Médecins Sans Frontières programmes.

      Balasegaram, M; Young, H; Chappuis, F; Priotto, G; Raguenaud, M E; Checchi, F; Médecins Sans Frontières-United Kingdom, 67-74 Saffron Hill, London EC1N 8QX, UK. (2008-10-21)
      This paper describes the effectiveness of first-line regimens for stage 2 human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection in nine Médecins Sans Frontières HAT treatment programmes in Angola, Republic of Congo, Sudan and Uganda. Regimens included eflornithine and standard- and short-course melarsoprol. Outcomes for 10461 naïve stage 2 patients fitting a standardised case definition and allocated to one of the above regimens were analysed by intention-to-treat analysis. Effectiveness was quantified by the case fatality rate (CFR) during treatment, the proportion probably and definitely cured and the Kaplan-Meier probability of relapse-free survival at 12 months and 24 months post admission. The CFR was similar for the standard- and short-course melarsoprol regimens (4.9% and 4.2%, respectively). The CFR for eflornithine was 1.2%. Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities varied from 71.4-91.8% at 1 year and 56.5-87.9% at 2 years for standard-course melarsoprol, to 73.0-91.1% at 1 year for short-course melarsoprol, and 79.9-97.4% at 1 year and 68.6-93.7% at 2 years for eflornithine. With the exception of one programme, survival at 12 months was >90% for eflornithine, whilst for melarsoprol it was <90% except in two sites. Eflornithine is recommended where feasible, especially in areas with low melarsoprol effectiveness.
    • Efficacy, Safety, and Dose of Pafuramidine, a New Oral Drug for Treatment of First Stage Sleeping Sickness, in a Phase 2a Clinical Study and Phase 2b Randomized Clinical Studies

      Burri, C; Yeramian, P D; Allen, J L; Merolle, A; Serge, K K; Mpanya, A; Lutumba, P; Mesu, V K; Bilenge, C M; Lubaki, J P; et al. (Public Library of Science, 2016-02-16)
      Sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis [HAT]) is caused by protozoan parasites and characterized by a chronic progressive course, which may last up to several years before death. We conducted two Phase 2 studies to determine the efficacy and safety of oral pafuramidine in African patients with first stage HAT.
    • Eflornithine is a cost-effective alternative to melarsoprol for the treatment of second-stage human West African trypanosomiasis in Caxito, Angola.

      Robays, J; Raguenaud, M E; Josenando, T; Boelaert, M; Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium. Medecins Sans Frontieres Belgium. National Sleeping Sickness control program of Angola (2008-02)
      OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost-effectiveness of eflornithine and melarsoprol in the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis. METHOD: We used data from a Médecins Sans Frontières treatment project in Caxito, Angola to do a formal cost-effectiveness analysis, comparing the efficiency of an eflornithine-based approach with melarsoprol. Endpoints calculated were: cost per death avoided; incremental cost per additional life saved; cost per years of life lost (YLL) averted; incremental cost per YLL averted. Sensitivity analysis was done for all parameters for which uncertainty existed over the plausible range. We did an analysis with and without cost of trypanocidal drugs included. RESULTS: Effectiveness was 95.6% for melarsoprol and 98.7% for eflornithine. Cost/patient was 504.6 for melarsoprol and 552.3 for eflornithine, cost per life saved was 527.5 USD for melarsoprol and 559.8 USD for eflornithine without cost of trypanocidal drugs but it increases to 600.4 USD and 844.6 USD per patient saved and 627.6 USD and 856.1 USD per life saved when cost of trypanocidal drugs are included. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is 1596 USD per additional life saved and 58 USD per additional life year saved in the baseline scenario without cost of trypanocidal drugs but it increases to 8169 USD per additional life saved and 299 USD per additional life year saved if costs of trypanocidal drugs are included. CONCLUSION: Eflornithine saves more lives than melarsoprol, but melarsoprol is slightly more cost-effective. Switching from melarsoprol to eflornithine can be considered as a cost-effective option according to the WHO choice criteria.
    • Eflornithine is Safer Than Melarsoprol for the Treatment of Second-Stage Trypanosoma Brucei Gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis.

      Chappuis, F; Udayraj, N; Stietenroth, K; Meussen, A; Bovier, P A; Médecins Sans Frontières, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland. francois.chappuis@hcuge.ch (Published by: Infectious Diseases Society of America, 2005-09-01)
      Patients with second-stage human African trypanosomiasis treated with eflornithine (n = 251) in 2003 in Kiri, southern Sudan, had an adjusted relative risk of death of 0.2 and experienced significantly fewer cutaneous and neurological adverse effects than did patients who were treated with melarsoprol in 2001 and 2002 (n = 708).
    • Estimates of the duration of the early and late stage of gambiense sleeping sickness.

      Checchi, F; Filipe, J A N; Haydon, D T; Chandramohan, D; Chappuis, F; Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E7HT, UK. francesco.checchi@lshtm.ac.uk (BioMed Central, 2008-02-08)
      BACKGROUND: The durations of untreated stage 1 (early stage, haemo-lymphatic) and stage 2 (late stage, meningo-encephalitic) human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense are poorly quantified, but key to predicting the impact of screening on transmission. Here, we outline a method to estimate these parameters. METHODS: We first model the duration of stage 1 through survival analysis of untreated serological suspects detected during Médecins Sans Frontières interventions in Uganda and Sudan. We then deduce the duration of stage 2 based on the stage 1 to stage 2 ratio observed during active case detection in villages within the same sites. RESULTS: Survival in stage 1 appears to decay exponentially (daily rate = 0.0019; mean stage 1 duration = 526 days [95%CI 357 to 833]), possibly explaining past reports of abnormally long duration. Assuming epidemiological equilibrium, we estimate a similar duration of stage 2 (500 days [95%CI 345 to 769]), for a total of nearly three years in the absence of treatment. CONCLUSION: Robust estimates of these basic epidemiological parameters are essential to formulating a quantitative understanding of sleeping sickness dynamics, and will facilitate the evaluation of different possible control strategies.
    • Feasibility, drug safety, and effectiveness of etiological treatment programs for Chagas disease in Honduras, Guatemala, and Bolivia: 10-year experience of Médecins Sans Frontières

      Yun, O; Lima, M A; Ellman, T; Chambi, W; Castillo, S; Flevaud, L; Roddy, P; Parreño, F; Albajar Viñas, P; Palma, P P; et al. (Public Library of Science, 2009-07-07)
      BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is a zoonotic or anthropozoonotic disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Predominantly affecting populations in poor areas of Latin America, medical care for this neglected disease is often lacking. Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders (MSF) has provided diagnostic and treatment services for Chagas disease since 1999. This report describes 10 years of field experience in four MSF programs in Honduras, Guatemala, and Bolivia, focusing on feasibility protocols, safety of drug therapy, and treatment effectiveness. METHODOLOGY: From 1999 to 2008, MSF provided free diagnosis, etiological treatment, and follow-up care for patients <18 years of age seropositive for T. cruzi in Yoro, Honduras (1999-2002); Olopa, Guatemala (2003-2006); Entre Ríos, Bolivia (2002-2006); and Sucre, Bolivia (2005-2008). Essential program components guaranteeing feasibility of implementation were information, education, and communication (IEC) at the community and family level; vector control; health staff training; screening and diagnosis; treatment and compliance, including family-based strategies for early detection of adverse events; and logistics. Chagas disease diagnosis was confirmed by testing blood samples using two different diagnostic tests. T. cruzi-positive patients were treated with benznidazole as first-line treatment, with appropriate counseling, consent, and active participation from parents or guardians for daily administration of the drug, early detection of adverse events, and treatment withdrawal, when necessary. Weekly follow-up was conducted, with adverse events recorded to assess drug safety. Evaluations of serological conversion were carried out to measure treatment effectiveness. Vector control, entomological surveillance, and health education activities were carried out in all projects with close interaction with national and regional programs. RESULTS: Total numbers of children and adolescents tested for T. cruzi in Yoro, Olopa, Entre Ríos, and Sucre were 24,471, 8,927, 7,613, and 19,400, respectively. Of these, 232 (0.9%), 124 (1.4%), 1,475 (19.4%), and 1,145 (5.9%) patients, respectively, were diagnosed as seropositive. Patients were treated with benznidazole, and early findings of seroconversion varied widely between the Central and South American programs: 87.1% and 58.1% at 18 months post-treatment in Yoro and Olopa, respectively; 5.4% by up to 60 months in Entre Ríos; and 0% at an average of 18 months in Sucre. Benznidazole-related adverse events were observed in 50.2% and 50.8% of all patients treated in Yoro and Olopa, respectively, and 25.6% and 37.9% of patients in Entre Ríos and Sucre, respectively. Most adverse events were mild and manageable. No deaths occurred in the treatment population. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing Chagas disease diagnosis and treatment programs in resource-limited settings, including remote rural areas, while addressing the limitations associated with drug-related adverse events. The variability in apparent treatment effectiveness may reflect differences in patient and parasite populations, and illustrates the limitations of current treatments and measures of efficacy. New treatments with improved safety profiles, pediatric formulations of existing and new drugs, and a faster, reliable test of cure are all urgently needed.
    • Field evaluation of the CATT/Trypanosoma brucei gambiense on blood-impregnated filter papers for diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis in southern Sudan.

      Chappuis, F; Pittet, A; Bovier, P A; Adams, K; Godineau, V; Hwang, S Y; Magnus, E; Büscher, P; Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) - Switzerland, Geneva, Switzerland. francois.chappuis@hcuge.ch (Wiley-Blackwell, 2002-11)
      Most Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) control programmes in areas endemic for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense rely on a strategy of active mass screening with the Card Agglutination Test for Trypanosomiasis (CATT)/T. b. gambiense. We evaluated the performance, stability and reproducibility of the CATT/T. b. gambiense on blood-impregnated filter papers (CATT-FP) in Kajo-Keji County, South-Sudan, where some areas are inaccessible to mobile teams. The CATT-FP was performed with a group of 100 people with a positive CATT on whole blood including 17 confirmed HAT patients and the results were compared with the CATT on plasma (CATT-P). The CATT-FP was repeated on impregnated filter papers stored at ambient and refrigerated temperature for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days. Another 82 patients with HAT, including 78 with a positive parasitology, were tested with the CATT-FP and duplicate filter paper samples were sent to a reference laboratory to assess reproducibility. The CATT-FP was positive in 90 of 99 patients with HAT (sensitivity: 91%). It was less sensitive than the CATT-P (mean dilution difference: -2.5). There was no significant loss of sensitivity after storage for up to 14 days both at ambient and cool temperature. Reproducibility of the CATT-FP was found to be excellent (kappa: 0.84). The CATT-FP can therefore be recommended as a screening test for HAT in areas where the use of CATT-P is not possible. Further studies on larger population samples in different endemic foci are still needed before the CATT-FP can be recommended for universal use.
    • Human African trypanosomiasis

      Brun, R; Blum, J; Chappuis, F; Burri, C; Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland; Geneva University Hospitals, University of Geneva, Switzerland; Médecins Sans Frontières, Geneva, Switzerland (2009-10-14)
      Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) occurs in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, transmitted by tsetse flies. Almost all cases are due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which is indigenous to west and central Africa. Prevalence is strongly dependent on control measures, which are often neglected during periods of political instability, thus leading to resurgence. With fewer than 12 000 cases of this disabling and fatal disease reported per year, trypanosomiasis belongs to the most neglected tropical diseases. The clinical presentation is complex, and diagnosis and treatment difficult. The available drugs are old, complicated to administer, and can cause severe adverse reactions. New diagnostic methods and safe and effective drugs are urgently needed. Vector control, to reduce the number of flies in existing foci, needs to be organised on a pan-African basis. WHO has stated that if national control programmes, international organisations, research institutes, and philanthropic partners engage in concerted action, elimination of this disease might even be possible.
    • Human African trypanosomiasis amongst urban residents in Kinshasa: a case-control study.

      Robays, J; Ebeja, A; Lutumba, P; Miaka mia Bilenge, C; Kande Betu Ku Mesu, V; De Deken, R; Makabuza, J; Deguerry, M; Van der Stuyft, P; Boelaert, M; et al. (2004-08)
      BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) cases have been reported in urban residents of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic Congo since 1996. We set up a case-control study to identify risk factors for the disease. METHODS: All residents of the urban part of Kinshasa with parasitologically confirmed HAT and presenting for treatment to the city's specialized HAT clinics between 1 August, 2002 and 28 February, 2003 were included as cases. We defined the urban part as the area with contiguous habitation and a population density >5000 inhabitants per square kilometre. A digital map of the area was drawn based on a satellite image. For each case, two serologically negative controls were selected, matched on age, sex and neighbourhood. Logistic regression models were fitted to control for confounding. RESULTS: The following risk factors were independently associated with HAT: travel, commerce and cultivating fields in Bandundu, and commerce and cultivating fields in the rural part of Kinshasa. No association with activities in the city itself was found. DISCUSSION: In 2002, the emergence of HAT in urban residents of Kinshasa appears mainly linked to disease transmission in Bandundu and rural Kinshasa. We recommend to intensify control of these foci, to target HAT screening in urban residents to people with contact with these foci, to increase awareness of HAT amongst health workers in the urban health structures and to strengthen disease surveillance.
    • Human African trypanosomiasis in areas without surveillance.

      Chappuis, F; Lima, M A; Flevaud, L; Ritmeijer, K; Médecins Sans Frontières, Geneva, Switzerland; Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland; Médecins sans Frontières, Barcelona, Spain; Médecins sans Frontières, Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2010-02-01)
    • Human african trypanosomiasis in the democratic republic of the congo: a looming emergency?

      Hasker, E; Lutumba, P; Chappuis, F; Kande, V; Potet, J; De Weggheleire, A; Kambo, C; Depoortere, E; Pécoul, B; Boelaert, M; et al. (2012-12)
    • Human african trypanosomiasis: A history of its therapies and their failures.

      Ollivier, G; Legros, D; Epicentre, Paris, France. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2001-11)
      This paper gives an overview of the treatment of Human African Trypanosomiasis from the early 20th century until today.