• Leishmania Antigenuria to Predict Initial Treatment Failure and Relapse in Visceral Leishmaniasis/HIV Coinfected Patients: An Exploratory Study Nested Within a Clinical Trial in Ethiopia

      van Griensven, J; Mengesha, B; Mekonnen, T; Fikre, H; Takele, Y; Adem, E; Mohammed, R; Ritmeijer, K; Vogt, F; Adriaensen, W; et al. (Frontiers Media, 2018-03-29)
      Background: Biomarkers predicting the risk of VL treatment failure and relapse in VL/HIV coinfected patients are needed. Nested within a two-site clinical trial in Ethiopia (2011-2015), we conducted an exploratory study to assess whether (1) levels of Leishmania antigenuria measured at VL diagnosis were associated with initial treatment failure and (2) levels of Leishmania antigenuria at the end of treatment (parasitologically-confirmed cure) were associated with subsequent relapse. Methods:Leishmania antigenuria at VL diagnosis and cure was determined using KAtex urine antigen test and graded as negative (0), weak/moderate (grade 1+/2+) or strongly-positive (3+). Logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier methods were used to assess the association between antigenuria and (1) initial treatment failure, and (2) relapse over the 12 months after cure, respectively. Results: The analysis to predict initial treatment failure included sixty-three coinfected adults [median age: 30 years interquartile range (IQR) 27-35], median CD4 count: 56 cells/μL (IQR 38-113). KAtex results at VL diagnosis were negative in 11 (17%), weak/moderate in 17 (27%) and strongly-positive in 35 (36%). Twenty (32%) patients had parasitologically-confirmed treatment failure, with a risk of failure of 9% (1/11) with KAtex-negative results, 0% (0/17) for KAtex 1+/2+ and 54% (19/35) for KAtex 3+ results. Compared to KAtex-negative patients, KAtex 3+ patients were at increased risk of treatment failure [odds ratio 11.9 (95% CI 1.4-103.0); P: 0.025]. Forty-four patients were included in the analysis to predict relapse [median age: 31 years (IQR 28-35), median CD4 count: 116 cells/μL (IQR 95-181)]. When achieving VL cure, KAtex results were negative in 19 (43%), weak/moderate (1+/2+) in 10 (23%), and strongly positive (3+) in 15 patients (34%). Over the subsequent 12 months, eight out of 44 patients (18%) relapsed. The predicted 1-year relapse risk was 6% for KAtex-negative results, 14% for KAtex 1+/2+ and 42% for KAtex 3+ results [hazard ratio of 2.2 (95% CI 0.1-34.9) for KAtex 1+/2+ and 9.8 (95% CI 1.8-82.1) for KAtex 3+, compared to KAtex negative patients; P: 0.03]. Conclusion: A simple field-deployable Leishmania urine antigen test can be used for risk stratification of initial treatment failure and VL relapse in HIV-patients. A dipstick-format would facilitate field implementation.
    • Long term outcomes and prognostics of visceral leishmaniasis in HIV infected patients with use of pentamidine as secondary prophylaxis based on CD4 level: a prospective cohort study in Ethiopia

      Diro, E; Edwards, T; Ritmeijer, K; Fikre, H; Abongomera, c; Kibret, A; Bardonneau, C; Soipei, P; Mutinda, B; Omollo, R; et al. (Public Library of Science, 2019-02-21)
      BACKGROUND: The long-term treatment outcome of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients with HIV co-infection is complicated by a high rate of relapse, especially when the CD4 count is low. Although use of secondary prophylaxis is recommended, it is not routinely practiced and data on its effectiveness and safety are limited. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in Northwest Ethiopia from August 2014 to August 2017 (NCT02011958). HIV-VL patients were followed for up to 12 months. Patients with CD4 cell counts below 200/μL at the end of VL treatment received pentamidine prophylaxis starting one month after parasitological cure, while those with CD4 count ≥200 cells/μL were followed without secondary prophylaxis. Compliance, safety and relapse-free survival, using Kaplan-Meier analysis methods to account for variable time at risk, were summarised. Risk factors for relapse or death were analysed. RESULTS: Fifty-four HIV patients were followed. The probability of relapse-free survival at one year was 50% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 35-63%): 53% (30-71%) in 22 patients with CD4 ≥200 cells/μL without pentamidine prophylaxis and 46% (26-63%) in 29 with CD4 <200 cells/μL who started pentamidine. Three patients with CD4 <200 cells/μL did not start pentamidine. Amongst those with CD4 ≥200 cells/μL, VL relapse was an independent risk factor for subsequent relapse or death (adjusted rate ratio: 5.42, 95% CI: 1.1-25.8). Except for one case of renal failure which was considered possibly related to pentamidine, there were no drug-related safety concerns. CONCLUSION: The relapse-free survival rate for VL patients with HIV was low. Relapse-free survival of patients with CD4 count <200cells/μL given pentamidine secondary prophylaxis appeared to be comparable to patients with a CD4 count ≥200 cells/μL not given prophylaxis. Patients with relapsed VL are at higher risk for subsequent relapse and should be considered a priority for secondary prophylaxis, irrespective of their CD4 count.
    • Long-term Clinical Outcomes in Visceral Leishmaniasis-HIV Co-infected Patients during and after Pentamidine Secondary Prophylaxis in Ethiopia: a single-arm clinical trial

      Diro, E; Ritmeijer, K; Boelaert, M; Alves, F; Mohammed, R; Abongomera, C; Ravinetto, R; De Crop, M; Fikre, H; Adera, C; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2017-09-13)
      We have conducted a single-arm trial evaluating monthly pentamidine secondary prophylaxis (PSP) to prevent visceral leishmaniasis (VL) relapse in Ethiopian HIV-patients. Outcomes at 12 months of PSP have been previously reported, supporting PSP effectiveness and safety. However, remaining relapse-free after PSP discontinuation is vital. We now report outcomes and associated factors for a period of upto 2.5 years after initiating PSP, including one year follow-up after PSP discontinuation.
    • A Randomized Trial of AmBisome Monotherapy and AmBisome and Miltefosine Combination to Treat Visceral leishmaniasis in HIV Co-infected Patients in Ethiopia

      Diro, E; Blesson, S; Edwards, T; Ritmeijer, K; Fikre, H; Admassu, H; Kibret, A; Ellis, SJ; Bardonneau, C; Zijlstra, EE; et al. (Public Library of Science, 2019-01-17)
      Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected patients requires special case management. AmBisome monotherapy at 40 mg/kg is recommended by the World Health Organization. The objective of the study was to assess if a combination of a lower dose of AmBisome with miltefosine would show acceptable efficacy at the end of treatment.