• Sonographic findings in visceral leishmaniasis – A narrative review

      Belard, S; Stratta, E; Zhao, A; Ritmeijer, K; Moreto-Planas, L; Fentress, M; Nadimpalli, A; Grobusch, MP; Heller, T; Heuvelings, CC (Elsevier We regret that this article is behind a paywall., 2020-11-20)
      Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is predominantly a neglected tropical parasitic disease but may also be acquired by travellers. We aimed at summarizing knowledge on sonographic presentation of VL to better understand sonographic features of VL. Methods PubMed was searched for studies and case reports presenting original data on sonographic findings of VL, published before August 13th, 2019. Demographic, clinical, and sonographic data were extracted and summarized in a qualitative approach. Results A total of 36 publications were included in this review; 27 of these were case reports and the remainder were prospective or retrospective studies. No study reported systematic cross-sectional comparative imaging. Overall, publications reported on 512 patients with VL of whom 12 were reported HIV-infected. Spleno- and hepatomegaly were the most frequently reported findings. Further relevant and repeatedly reported findings were splenic and hepatic lesions, abdominal lymphadenopathy, pleural and pericardial effusion and ascites. Reported focal splenic lesions were heterogeneous in size, shape, and echogenicity. Several publications reported gradual diminution and resolution of sonographic findings with VL treatment. Conclusion Available literature on sonographic findings of VL is limited. Available reports indicate that spleno- and hepatomegaly, free fluid, abdominal lymphadenopathy, and focal splenic lesions may be common sonographic features in patients with VL. Because of the apparent overlap of sonographic features of VL, extrapulmonary tuberculosis and other conditions, interpretation of sonographic findings needs to be made with particular caution.