• Evaluation of a New Recombinant K39 Rapid Diagnostic Test for Sudanese Visceral Leishmaniasis.

      Ritmeijer, K; Melaku, Y; Mueller, M; Kipngetich, S; O'keeffe, C; Davidson, R N; Médecins sans Frontières-Holland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. koert.ritmeijer@amsterdam.msf.org (Published by: American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2006-01)
      A new rK39 rapid diagnostic dipstick test (DiaMed-IT-Leish) was compared with aspiration and a direct agglutination test (DAT) for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in 201 parasitologically confirmed cases, 133 endemic controls, and in 356 clinical suspects in disease-endemic and -epidemic areas in Sudan. The sensitivity of the rK39 test in parasitologically confirmed VL cases was 90%, whereas the specificity in disease-endemic controls was 99%. The sensitivity of the DAT was 98%. In clinically suspected cases, the sensitivity of the rK39 test was 81% and the specificity was 97%. When compared with the diagnostic protocol based on the DAT and aspiration used by Médecins sans Frontières in epidemic situations, the positive predictive value was 98%, and the negative predictive value was 71%. This rK39 rapid diagnostic test is suitable for screening as well as diagnosis of VL. Further diagnostic work-up of dipstick-negative patients with clinically suspected VL is important. The ease and convenience of the dipstick test will allow decentralization and improved access to care in disease-endemic areas in Sudan.
    • Utility of Lymph Node Aspiration in the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Sudan.

      Babiker, Z O E; Davidson, R N N; Mazinda, C; Kipngetich, S; Ritmeijer, K; Médecins Sans Frontières-Holland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. zahir_babiker@yahoo.co.uk (Published by: American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2007-04)
      We evaluated lymph node aspiration (LNA) as a simple diagnostic procedure for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Lymph node aspiration was compared with the direct agglutination test (DAT) using a diagnostic titer > or = 1:6,400 in 7,880 suspected VL patients in eastern Sudan. Compared with DAT, LNA had a sensitivity of 65.1% (95% confidence interval = 63.5-66.6%). Parasite density in LNA correlated strongly with DAT titers (P < 0.0001), and low parasite density accounted for 78.1% of positive LNA results with DAT titers < 1:6,400 (n = 782). Risk factors predictive of a positive LNA result were an age of 1-29 years, male sex, a hemoglobin level < 10.0 g/dL, a DAT titer > or = 1:800, and a location with a higher prevalence of VL. Lymph node and splenic aspirations were similarly accurate as tests of cure after treatment of 50 VL patients in southern Sudan. Pre-treatment LNA results were negative in 20 cases of severe post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.