• Correction of Tuberous Nipple Areolar Complex Deformity in Gynecomastia: The Deformity That Can Get Forgotten.

      Godwin, Y (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2018-07-01)
      The desired end point of surgical reduction of gynecomastia is a masculine breast appearance and symmetry. This article concentrates on the tuberous deformity of the nipple areolar complex (NAC) that can present in gynecomastia and is sometimes overlooked at surgical correction.This deformity can be corrected at primary surgery if it is recognized preoperatively. If missed, or not adequately corrected, the postoperative result of primary reduction may be deemed incomplete by the patient and they will request revision.The deformity involves overprojection of the NAC in an anteroposterior direction, yet the base diameter may be close to normal. Correction involves reduction of the herniated breast bud, excision of excess areolar tissue, and careful radial scoring to flatten the NAC to a normal level of projection.For the NAC to have a masculine appearance, the areolae need to be symmetrical, of normal male size, and slightly oval in a transverse direction. The projection of both areola and nipple needs to be low, but present: not flattened. This article presents an operative technique to address primary or residual tuberous NAC deformity in the treatment of gynecomastia.