• Anesthesia Provision in Disasters and Armed Conflicts

      Trelles Centurion, M; Van Den Bergh, R; Gray, H (Springer, 2017)
      Disasters and armed conflicts are characterized by high numbers of trauma cases, and occur mainly in developing countries where the healthcare response is already impaired, resulting in an inadequate response. Aside of the trauma cases, other surgical health conditions are also still present and require urgent care. Surgical care needs are different from context to context and depend on local means and capabilities.
    • Association Between Gender, Surgery and Mortality for Patients Treated at Médecins Sans Frontières Trauma Centre in Kunduz, Afghanistan.

      Tounsi, LL; Daebes, HL; Warnberg, MG; Jaweed, M; Mamozai, BA; Nasim, M; Drevin, G; Trelles, M; von Schreeb, J (Springer, 2019-05-07)
      INTRODUCTION: There is paucity of literature describing type of injury and care for females in conflicts. This study aimed to describe the injury pattern and outcome in terms of surgery and mortality for female patients presenting to Médecins Sans Frontières Trauma Centre in Kunduz, Afghanistan, and compare them with males. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study retrospectively analysed patient data from 17,916 patients treated at the emergency department in Kunduz between January and September 2015, before its destruction by aerial bombing in October the same year. Routinely collected data on patient characteristics, injury patterns, triage category, time to arrival and outcome were retrieved and analysed. Comparative analyses were conducted using logistic regression. RESULTS: Females constituted 23.6% of patients. Burns and back injuries were more common among females (1.4% and 3.3%) than among males (0.6% and 2.0%). In contrast, open wounds and thoracic injuries were more common among males (10.1% and 0.6%) than among females (5.2% and 0.2%). Females were less likely to undergo surgery (OR 0.60, CI 0.528-0.688), and this remained significant after adjustment for age, nature of injury, triage category, multiple injuries and delay to arrival (OR 0.80, CI 0.690-0.926). Females also had lower unadjusted odds of mortality (OR 0.49, CI 0.277-0.874), but this was not significant in the adjusted analysis (OR 0.81, CI 0.446-1.453). CONCLUSION: Our main findings suggest that females seeking care at Kunduz Trauma Centre arrived later, had different injury patterns and were less likely to undergo surgery as compared to males.
    • South African General Surgeon Preparedness for Humanitarian Disasters

      Chu, KM; Karjiker, P; Naidu, P; Kruger, D; Taylor, A; Trelles, M; Dominguez, L; Rayne, S (Springer, 2018-12-06)
      Background Humanitarian medical organizations provide surgical care for a broad range of conditions including general surgical (GS), obstetric and gynecologic (OBGYN), orthopedic (ORTHO), and urologic (URO) conditions in unstable contexts. The most common humanitarian operation is cesarean section. The objective of this study was to identify the proportion of South African general surgeons who had operative experience and current competency in GS, OBGYN, ORTHO, and URO humanitarian operations in order to evaluate their potential for working in humanitarian disasters. Methods This was a cross-sectional online survey of South African general surgeons administered from November 2017–July 2018. Rotations in OBGYN, ORTHO, and URO were quantified. Experience and competency in eighteen humanitarian operations were queried. Results There were 154 SA general surgeon participants. Prior to starting general surgery (GS) residency, 129 (83%) had OBGYN, 125 (81%) ORTHO, and 84 (54%) URO experience. Experience and competency in humanitarian procedures by specialty included: 96% experience and 95% competency for GS, 71% experience and 51% com- petency for OBGYN, 77% experience and 66% competency for ORTHO, and 86% experience and 81% competency for URO. 82% reported training, and 51% competency in cesarean section. Conclusions SA general surgeons are potentially well suited for humanitarian surgery. This study has shown that most SA general surgeons received training in OBGYN, ORTHO, and URO prior to residency and many maintain competence in the corresponding humanitarian operations. Other low- to middle-income countries may also have broad-based surgery training, and the potential for their surgeons to offer humanitarian assistance should be further investigated.
    • Traumatic Injuries are the Main Indication for Limb Amputations During and After Humanitarian Crises

      Naidu, P; Dominguez, LB; Trelles, M; Chu, KM (Springer, 2021-01-15)
      Background Populations at risk during humanitarian crises can suffer traumatic injuries or have medical conditions that result in the need for limb amputation (LA). The objectives of this study were to describe the indications for and associations with LA during and after humanitarian crises in surgical projects supported by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF). Methods MSF-Operational Center Brussels data from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2017, were analyzed. Surgical projects were classified into (annual) periods of crises and post-crises. Indications were classified into trauma (intentional and unintentional) and non-trauma (medical). Associations with LA were also reported. Results MSF-OCB performed 936 amputations in 17 countries over the 10-year study period. 706 (75%) patients were male and the median age was 27 years (interquartile range 17–41 years). Six hundred and twenty-one (66%) LA were performed during crisis periods, 501 (53%) during conflict and 119 (13%) post-natural disaster. There were 316 (34%) LA in post-crisis periods. Overall, trauma was the predominant indication (n = 756, 81%) and accounted for significantly more LA (n = 577, 94%) in crisis compared to post-crisis periods (n = 179, 57%) (p < 0.001). Discussion Our study suggests that populations at risk for humanitarian crises are still vulnerable to traumatic LA. Appropriate operative and post-operative LA management in the humanitarian setting must be provided, including rehabilitation and options for prosthetic devices.