Outbreak of Fatal Childhood Lead Poisoning Related to Artisanal Gold Mining in Northwestern Nigeria, 2010.
AuthorsDooyema, C A
Dargan, P I
Gidado, S O
Nguku, P M
Bashir, A M
Brown, M J
AffiliationCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Environmental, Healthy Homes and Lead Poisoning Prevention Branch, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; CDC, Epidemic Intelligence Service Atlanta, Georgia, USA; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Atlanta, Georgia, USA; Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust and King’s Health Partners, London, UK; Médecins Sans Frontières, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Nigerian Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria; CDC, Abuja, Nigeria; Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria; Zamfara State Ministry of Health, Gusau, Nigeria
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractBackground: In May 2010, a team of national and international organizations was assembled to investigate children's deaths due to lead poisoning in villages in northwestern Nigeria. Objectives: To determine the cause of the childhood lead poisoning outbreak, investigate risk factors for child mortality, and identify children aged <5 years in need of emergency chelation therapy for lead poisoning. Methods: We administered a cross-sectional, door-to-door questionnaire in two affected villages, collected blood from children aged 2-59 months, and soil samples from family compounds. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed with survey, blood-lead, and environmental data. Multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to determine risk factors for childhood mortality. Results: We surveyed 119 family compounds. One hundred eighteen of 463 (25%) children aged <5 years had died in the last year. We tested 59% (204/345) of children, aged <5 years, and all were lead poisoned (≥10 µg/dL); 97% (198/204) of children had blood-lead levels ≥45 µg/dL, the threshold for initiating chelation therapy. Gold ore was processed inside two-thirds of the family compounds surveyed. In multivariate modeling significant risk factors for death in the previous year from suspected lead poisoning included: the child's age, the mother performing ore-processing activities, community well as primary water source, and the soil-lead concentration in the compound. Conclusion: The high levels of environmental contamination, percentage of children aged <5 years with elevated blood-lead levels (97%, >45 µg/dL), and incidence of convulsions among children prior to death (82%) suggest that most of the recent childhood deaths in the two surveyed villages were caused by acute lead poisoning from gold ore-processing activities. Control measures included environmental remediation, chelation therapy, public health education, and control of mining activities.
- Childhood lead poisoning associated with gold ore processing: a village-level investigation-Zamfara State, Nigeria, October-November 2010.
- Authors: Lo YC, Dooyema CA, Neri A, Durant J, Jefferies T, Medina-Marino A, de Ravello L, Thoroughman D, Davis L, Dankoli RS, Samson MY, Ibrahim LM, Okechukwu O, Umar-Tsafe NT, Dama AH, Brown MJ
- Issue date: 2012 Oct
- High concentration of blood lead levels among young children in Bagega community, Zamfara - Nigeria and the potential risk factor.
- Authors: Ajumobi OO, Tsofo A, Yango M, Aworh MK, Anagbogu IN, Mohammed A, Umar-Tsafe N, Mohammed S, Abdullahi M, Davis L, Idris S, Poggensee G, Nguku P, Gitta S, Nsubuga P
- Issue date: 2014
- Environmental Remediation to Address Childhood Lead Poisoning Epidemic due to Artisanal Gold Mining in Zamfara, Nigeria.
- Authors: Tirima S, Bartrem C, von Lindern I, von Braun M, Lind D, Anka SM, Abdullahi A
- Issue date: 2016 Sep
- Environmental lead pollution and elevated blood lead levels among children in a rural area of China.
- Authors: Lin S, Wang X, Yu IT, Tang W, Miao J, Li J, Wu S, Lin X
- Issue date: 2011 May
- Linking geological and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria.
- Authors: Plumlee GS, Durant JT, Morman SA, Neri A, Wolf RE, Dooyema CA, Hageman PL, Lowers HA, Fernette GL, Meeker GP, Benzel WM, Driscoll RL, Berry CJ, Crock JG, Goldstein HL, Adams M, Bartrem CL, Tirima S, Behbod B, von Lindern I, Brown MJ
- Issue date: 2013 Jun