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dc.contributor.authorDooyema, C A
dc.contributor.authorNeri, A
dc.contributor.authorLo, Y-C
dc.contributor.authorDurant, J
dc.contributor.authorDargan, P I
dc.contributor.authorSwarthout, T
dc.contributor.authorBiya, O
dc.contributor.authorGidado, S O
dc.contributor.authorHaladu, S
dc.contributor.authorSani-Gwarzo, N
dc.contributor.authorNguku, P M
dc.contributor.authorAkpan, H
dc.contributor.authorIdris, S
dc.contributor.authorBashir, A M
dc.contributor.authorBrown, M J
dc.date.accessioned2012-04-24T16:37:18Z
dc.date.available2012-04-24T16:37:18Z
dc.date.issued2011-12-20
dc.identifier.citationEnviron Health Perspect 2011; Published ahead of printen
dc.identifier.issn1552-9924
dc.identifier.pmid22186192
dc.identifier.doi10.1289/ehp.1103965
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10144/220352
dc.description.abstractBackground: In May 2010, a team of national and international organizations was assembled to investigate children's deaths due to lead poisoning in villages in northwestern Nigeria. Objectives: To determine the cause of the childhood lead poisoning outbreak, investigate risk factors for child mortality, and identify children aged <5 years in need of emergency chelation therapy for lead poisoning. Methods: We administered a cross-sectional, door-to-door questionnaire in two affected villages, collected blood from children aged 2-59 months, and soil samples from family compounds. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed with survey, blood-lead, and environmental data. Multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to determine risk factors for childhood mortality. Results: We surveyed 119 family compounds. One hundred eighteen of 463 (25%) children aged <5 years had died in the last year. We tested 59% (204/345) of children, aged <5 years, and all were lead poisoned (≥10 µg/dL); 97% (198/204) of children had blood-lead levels ≥45 µg/dL, the threshold for initiating chelation therapy. Gold ore was processed inside two-thirds of the family compounds surveyed. In multivariate modeling significant risk factors for death in the previous year from suspected lead poisoning included: the child's age, the mother performing ore-processing activities, community well as primary water source, and the soil-lead concentration in the compound. Conclusion: The high levels of environmental contamination, percentage of children aged <5 years with elevated blood-lead levels (97%, >45 µg/dL), and incidence of convulsions among children prior to death (82%) suggest that most of the recent childhood deaths in the two surveyed villages were caused by acute lead poisoning from gold ore-processing activities. Control measures included environmental remediation, chelation therapy, public health education, and control of mining activities.
dc.languageENG
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciencesen
dc.relation.urlhttp://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/info:doi/10.1289/ehp.1103965en
dc.rightsPublished by National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Archived on this site by Open Access permissionen
dc.subject.meshLead poisoningen
dc.subject.meshPediatricsen
dc.titleOutbreak of Fatal Childhood Lead Poisoning Related to Artisanal Gold Mining in Northwestern Nigeria, 2010.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Environmental, Healthy Homes and Lead Poisoning Prevention Branch, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; CDC, Epidemic Intelligence Service Atlanta, Georgia, USA; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Atlanta, Georgia, USA; Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust and King’s Health Partners, London, UK; Médecins Sans Frontières, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Nigerian Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria; CDC, Abuja, Nigeria; Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria; Zamfara State Ministry of Health, Gusau, Nigeriaen
dc.identifier.journalEnvironmental Health Perspectivesen
refterms.dateFOA2019-03-04T09:43:55Z
html.description.abstractBackground: In May 2010, a team of national and international organizations was assembled to investigate children's deaths due to lead poisoning in villages in northwestern Nigeria. Objectives: To determine the cause of the childhood lead poisoning outbreak, investigate risk factors for child mortality, and identify children aged <5 years in need of emergency chelation therapy for lead poisoning. Methods: We administered a cross-sectional, door-to-door questionnaire in two affected villages, collected blood from children aged 2-59 months, and soil samples from family compounds. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed with survey, blood-lead, and environmental data. Multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to determine risk factors for childhood mortality. Results: We surveyed 119 family compounds. One hundred eighteen of 463 (25%) children aged <5 years had died in the last year. We tested 59% (204/345) of children, aged <5 years, and all were lead poisoned (≥10 µg/dL); 97% (198/204) of children had blood-lead levels ≥45 µg/dL, the threshold for initiating chelation therapy. Gold ore was processed inside two-thirds of the family compounds surveyed. In multivariate modeling significant risk factors for death in the previous year from suspected lead poisoning included: the child's age, the mother performing ore-processing activities, community well as primary water source, and the soil-lead concentration in the compound. Conclusion: The high levels of environmental contamination, percentage of children aged <5 years with elevated blood-lead levels (97%, >45 µg/dL), and incidence of convulsions among children prior to death (82%) suggest that most of the recent childhood deaths in the two surveyed villages were caused by acute lead poisoning from gold ore-processing activities. Control measures included environmental remediation, chelation therapy, public health education, and control of mining activities.


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