AffiliationEpicentre, 8 rue Saint Sabin, 75011 Paris, France.
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AbstractCholera epidemics in refugee camps represent a major public health emergency. In camps, precarious living conditions contribute to the transmission of the vibrio. Among the major epidemics reported in camps, we note as well those which have affected Africa in the last two decades. These epidemics are characterized by high attack rates and high case fatality ratios. Attack rates in refugee camps can exceed 5%. Appropriate control measures are adopted at international level. Actions carried out urgently must allow the proper supply of water, the control of excreta, and the improvement of general sanitary conditions and individual hygiene. Efficient management of cases in specialized cholera treatment centres (CTC) should decrease the case fatality ratio to less than 1%. Treatment is mainly based on the prompt rehydration of patients. For wide camps, rapid access to oral rehydration units is essential. Availability of all necessary equipment in kit form is required.
- Cholera: a continuous epidemic in Africa.
- Authors: Naidoo A, Patric K
- Issue date: 2002 Jun
- Cholera in Africa: lessons on transmission and control for Latin America.
- Authors: Glass RI, Claeson M, Blake PA, Waldman RJ, Pierce NF
- Issue date: 1991 Sep 28
- Epidemic cholera among refugees in Malawi, Africa: treatment and transmission.
- Authors: Swerdlow DL, Malenga G, Begkoyian G, Nyangulu D, Toole M, Waldman RJ, Puhr DN, Tauxe RV
- Issue date: 1997 Jun
- Cost-effectiveness of oral cholera vaccine in a stable refugee population at risk for epidemic cholera and in a population with endemic cholera.
- Authors: Murray J, McFarland DA, Waldman RJ
- Issue date: 1998
- Role of water and sanitation in the incidence of cholera in refugee camps.
- Authors: Khan MU, Shahidullah M
- Issue date: 1982