AffiliationEpicentre, 8 rue Saint Sabin, 75011 Paris, France.
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AbstractCholera epidemics in refugee camps represent a major public health emergency. In camps, precarious living conditions contribute to the transmission of the vibrio. Among the major epidemics reported in camps, we note as well those which have affected Africa in the last two decades. These epidemics are characterized by high attack rates and high case fatality ratios. Attack rates in refugee camps can exceed 5%. Appropriate control measures are adopted at international level. Actions carried out urgently must allow the proper supply of water, the control of excreta, and the improvement of general sanitary conditions and individual hygiene. Efficient management of cases in specialized cholera treatment centres (CTC) should decrease the case fatality ratio to less than 1%. Treatment is mainly based on the prompt rehydration of patients. For wide camps, rapid access to oral rehydration units is essential. Availability of all necessary equipment in kit form is required.
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