25 years of the WHO essential medicines lists: progress and challenges.
AffiliationBoston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02118, USA. email@example.com <firstname.lastname@example.org>
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractThe first WHO essential drugs list, published in 1977, was described as a peaceful revolution in international public health. The list helped to establish the principle that some medicines were more useful than others and that essential medicines were often inaccessible to many populations. Since then, the essential medicines list (EML) has increased in size; defining an essential medicine has moved from an experience to an evidence-based process, including criteria such as public-health relevance, efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness. High priced medicines such as antiretrovirals are now included. Differences exist between the WHO model EML and national EMLs since countries face varying challenges relating to costs, drug effectiveness, morbidity patterns, and rationality of prescribing. Ensuring equitable access to and rational use of essential medicines has been promoted through WHO's revised drug strategy. This approach has required an engagement by WHO on issues such as the effect of international trade agreements on access to essential medicines and research and development to ensure availability of new essential medicines.
- Prices of antihypertensive medicines in sub-Saharan Africa and alignment to WHO's model list of essential medicines.
- Authors: Twagirumukiza M, Annemans L, Kips JG, Bienvenu E, Van Bortel LM
- Issue date: 2010 Mar
- Rare essentials: drugs for rare diseases as essential medicines.
- Authors: Stolk P, Willemen MJ, Leufkens HG
- Issue date: 2006 Sep
- Benchmarking progress in tackling the challenges of intellectual property, and access to medicines in developing countries.
- Authors: Musungu SF
- Issue date: 2006 May
- [The essentiality and rationality of the Brazilian national listing of essential medicines].
- Authors: Yamauti SM, Bonfim JR, Barberato-Filho S, Lopes LC
- Issue date: 2017 Mar
- Insights from the WHO and National Lists of Essential Medicines: Focus on Pediatric Diabetes Care in Africa.
- Authors: Rowlands A, Ameyaw E, Rutagarama F, Dipesalema J, Majaliwa ES, Mbogo J, Ogle GD, Chanoine JP
- Issue date: 2018