• Building Global Capacity for Conducting Operational Research Using the SORT IT Model: Where and Who?

      Zachariah, R; Rust, S; Berger, SD; Guillerm, N; Bissell, K; Delaunois, P; Reid, AJ; Kumar, AM; Olliaro, PL; Reeder, JC; et al. (Public Library of Science, 2016)
      Research capacity is weakest in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) where operational research is highly relevant and needed. Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT) courses have been developed to train participants to conduct and publish operational research and influence policy and practice. Twenty courses were completed in Asia, Africa, Europe and the South Pacific between 2009 and 2014.
    • Building Global Capacity for Conducting Operational Research Using the SORT IT Model: Where and Who?

      Zachariah, R; Rust, S; Berger, SD; Guillerm, N; Bissell, K; Delaunois, P; Reid, AJ; Kumar, AMV; Olliaro, PL; Reeder, JC; et al. (Public Library of Science, 2016-08-09)
      Research capacity is weakest in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) where operational research is highly relevant and needed. Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT) courses have been developed to train participants to conduct and publish operational research and influence policy and practice. Twenty courses were completed in Asia, Africa, Europe and the South Pacific between 2009 and 2014.
    • Building the capacity of public health programmes to become data rich, information rich and action rich

      Harries, AD; Khogali, M; Kumar, AMV; Satyanarayana, S; Takarinda, KC; Karpati, A; Olliaro, P; Zachariah, R (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2018-06-21)
      Good quality, timely data are the cornerstone of health systems, but in many countries these data are not used for evidence-informed decision making and/or for improving public health. The SORT IT (Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative) model has, over 8 years, trained health workers in low- and middle-income countries to use data to answer important public health questions by taking research projects through to completion and publication in national or international journals. The D2P (data to policy) training initiative is relatively new, and it teaches health workers how to apply 'decision analysis' and develop policy briefs for policy makers: this includes description of a problem and the available evidence, quantitative comparisons of policy options that take into account predicted health and economic impacts, and political and feasibility assessments. Policies adopted from evidence-based information generated through the SORT IT and D2P approaches can be evaluated to assess their impact, and the cycle repeated to identify and resolve new public health problems. Ministries of Health could benefit from this twin-training approach to make themselves 'data rich, information rich and action rich', and thereby use routinely collected data in a synergistic manner to improve public health policy making and health care delivery.
    • Changing prevalence and factors associated with female genital mutilation in Ethiopia: Data from the 2000, 2005 and 2016 national demographic health surveys.

      Azeze, GA; Williams, A; Tweya, H; Obsa, MS; Mokonnon, TM; Kanche, ZZ; Fite, RO; Harries, AD (Public Library of Sciences, 2020-09-03)
      Setting: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional surgical modification of the female genitalia comprising all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for cultural or nontherapeutic reasons. It can be harmful and violates girls' and women's human rights. FGM is a worldwide problem but mainly practiced in Africa. FGM is still widely practiced in Ethiopia despite being made a criminal offence in 2004. Objective: Using data from three Ethiopian Demographic Health Surveys (EDHS) conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2016 the objective was to assess changes in prevalence of FGM and associated factors among women of reproductive age and their daughters. Methods: EDHS datasets for the three surveys included data on FGM prevalence and socio-demographic factors. After weighting, the data were analysed using frequencies, proportions and the chi square test for trend. Categorical variables associated with FGM in 2016 were compared using OpenEpi and presented as prevalence ratios (Pr) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Levels of significance were set at 5% (P<0.05). Results: There was overall decline in FGM prevalence (from 79.9% to 74.3% to 65.2%, P<0.001), especially in younger women aged 15-19 years, and in the proportion of women who believed that the practice should continue (from 59.7% to 28.3% to 17.5%, P<0.001). There was also a decreasing trend of FGM in the daughters of the mothers who were interviewed, with prevalence significantly lower in mothers who had not themselves undergone FGM. Most (88.3%) women with FGM had the surgery as a child with the procedure mainly performed by a traditional circumciser (87.3%). Factors associated with higher FGM prevalence and lack of progress over the sixteen years included living in certain regions, especially Somali where FGM prevalence remained consistently >95%, lack of school education, coming from rural areas and living in less wealthy households. Conclusion: Although progress has been slow, the prevalence of FGM in Ethiopia has declined over time. Recommendations to quicken the trajectory of decline targeting integrated interventions to high prevalence areas focusing on mothers, fathers, youngsters, religious leaders and schools and ensuring that all girls receive some form of education.
    • Does Research Through Structured Operational Research and Training (SORT IT) Courses Impact Policy and Practice?

      Kumar, AMV; Shewade, HD; Tripathy, JP; Guillerm, N; Tayler-Smith, K; Dar Berger, S; Bissell, K; Reid, AJ; Zachariah, R; Harries, AD (Cambridge University Press, 2016-03-21)
    • Does the Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT) continue to influence health policy and/or practice?

      Tripathy, JP; Kumar, AM; Guillerm, N; Berger, SD; Bissell, K; Reid, A; Zachariah, R; Ramsay, A; Harries, AD (Taylor & Francis, 2018-08-01)
      The Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT) is a successful model of integrated operational research and capacity building with about 90% of participants completing the training and publishing in scientific journals.
    • Effects of real-time electronic data entry on HIV programme data quality in Lusaka, Zambia

      Moomba, K; Williams, A; Savory, T; Lumpa, M; Chilembo, P; Tweya, H; Harries, AD; Herce, M (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2020-03-21)
      Setting: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinics in five hospitals and five health centres in Lusaka, Zambia, which transitioned from daily entry of paper-based data records to an electronic medical record (EMR) system by dedicated data staff (Electronic-Last) to direct real-time data entry into the EMR by frontline health workers (Electronic-First). Objective: To compare completeness and accuracy of key HIV-related variables before and after transition of data entry from Electronic-Last to Electronic-First. Design: Comparative cross-sectional study using existing secondary data. Results: Registration data (e.g., date of birth) was 100% complete and pharmacy data (e.g., antiretroviral therapy regimen) was 90% complete under both approaches. Completeness of anthropometric and vital sign data was 75% across all facilities under Electronic-Last, and this worsened after Electronic-First. Completeness of TB screening and World Health Organization clinical staging data was also 75%, but improved with Electronic-First. Data entry errors for registration and clinical consultations decreased under Electronic-First, but errors increased for all anthropometric and vital sign variables. Patterns were similar in hospitals and health centres. Conclusion: With the notable exception of clinical consultation data, data completeness and accuracy did not improve after transitioning from Electronic-Last to Electronic-First. For anthropometric and vital sign variables, completeness and accuracy decreased. Quality improvement interventions are needed to improve Electronic-First implementation.
    • Frequency, characteristics and hospital outcomes of road traffic accidents and their victims in Guinea: a three-year retrospective study from 2015 to 2017

      Kourouma, K; Delamou, A; Lamah, L; Camara, BS; Kolie, D; Sidibé, S; Béavogui, AH; Owiti, P; Manzi, M; Ade, S; et al. (BMC, 2019-07-31)
      Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA) remain a global public health concern in developing countries. The aim of the study was to document the frequency, characteristics and hospital outcomes of road traffic accidents in Guinea from 2015 to 2017. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using medical records of RTA victims from 20 hospitals and a cross-sectional study of RTA cases from eight police stations in eight districts in Guinea, West Africa. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, trends of RTA, a sequence of interrupted time-series models and a segmented ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression. Results: Police stations recorded 3,140 RTA over 3 years with an overall annual increase in RTA rates from 14.0 per 100,000 population in 2015, to 19.2 per 100,000 population in 2016 (37.1% annual increase), to 28.7 per 100,000 population in 2017 (49.5% annual increase). Overall, the injury rates in 2016 and 2017 were .05 per 100,000 population higher on average per month (95% CI: .03-.07). Deaths from RTA showed no statistical differences over the 3 years and no association of RTA trends with season was found. Overall, 27,751 RTA victims were admitted to emergency units, representing 22% of all hospitals admissions. Most victims were males (71%) and young (33%). Deaths represented 1.4% of all RTA victims. 90% of deaths occurred before or within 24 h of hospital admission. Factors associated with death were being male (p = .04), being a child under 15 years (p = .045) or an elderly person aged ≥65 years (p < .001), and having head injury or coma (p < .001). Conclusions: RTA rates in Guinea are increasing. There is a need for implementing multisectoral RTA prevention measures in Guinea.
    • How has the Zimbabwe mycobacterial culture and drug sensitivity testing system among re-treatment tuberculosis patients functioned during the scale-up of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay?

      Timire, C; Takarinda, KC; Harries, AD; Mutunzi, H; Manyame-Murwira, B; Kumar, AMV; Sandy, C (Oxford University Press, 2018-06-01)
      In Zimbabwe, while the Xpert MTB/RIF assay is being used for diagnosing tuberculosis and rifampicin-resistance, re-treatment tuberculosis (TB) patients are still expected to have culture and drug sensitivity testing (CDST) performed at national reference laboratories for confirmation. The study aim was to document the Xpert MTB/RIF assay scale-up and assess how the CDST system functioned for re-treatment TB patients.
    • Management and Treatment Outcomes of Patients Enrolled in MDR-TB Treatment in Viet Nam

      Phuong, NTM; Nhung, NV; Hoa, NB; Thuy, HT; Takarinda, KC; Tayler-Smith, K; Harries, AD (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2016-03-21)
      The programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam has been rapidly scaled up since 2009.
    • Neglected tropical diseases and the sustainable development goals: an urgent call for action from the front line

      Addisu, A; Adriaensen, W; Balew, A; Asfaw, M; Diro, E; Garba Djirmay, A; Gebree, D; Seid, G; Begashaw, H; Harries, AD; et al. (BMJ, 2019-02-08)
    • Recurrent Tuberculosis and Associated Factors: A Five - Year Countrywide Study in Uzbekistan

      Gadoev, J; Asadov, D; Harries, AD; Parpieva, N; Tayler-Smith, K; Isaakidis, P; Ali, E; Hinderaker, SG; Ogtay, G; Ramsay, A; et al. (Public Library of Science, 2017-05-04)
      In Uzbekistan, despite stable and relatively high tuberculosis treatment success rates, relatively high rates of recurrent tuberculosis have recently been reported. Recurrent tuberculosis is when a patient who was treated for pulmonary tuberculosis and cured, later develops the disease again. This requires closer analysis to identify possible causes and recommend interventions to improve the situation. Using countrywide data, this study aimed to analyse trends in recurrent tuberculosis cases and describe their associations with socio-demographic and clinical factors.
    • Sustained Research Capacity After Completing a Structured Operational Research and Training (SORT IT) Course

      Guillerm, N; dar Berger, S; Bissell, K; Kumar, AMV; Ramsay, A; Reid, AJ; Zachariah, R; Harries, AD (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2016-09-21)
    • Ten Tips to Improve the Visibility and Dissemination of Research for Policy Makers and Practitioners

      Tripathy, JP; Bhatnagar, A; Shewade, HD; Kumar, AMV; Zachariah, R; Harries, AD (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2017-03-21)