• An Assessment of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Practices and Quality of Routinely Collected Data in Machakos County Kenya

      Kavoo, DM; Ali, SH; Kihara, AB; Kosgei, RJ; Tweya, H; Kizito, W; Omondi, O; Tauta, CN (African Journals Online, 2016-10)
    • Case management of malaria in Swaziland, 2011-2015: on track for elimination?

      Dlamini, SV; Kosgei, RJ; Mkhonta, N; Zulu, Z; Makadzange, K; Zhou, S; Owiti, P; Sikhondze, W; Namboze, J; Reid, A; et al. (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2018-04-25)
      Objective: To assess adherence to malaria diagnosis and treatment guidelines (2010 and 2014) in all health care facilities in Swaziland between 2011 and 2015. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving all health care facilities that diagnosed and managed malaria cases in Swaziland. Patients' age, sex, diagnosis method and type of treatment were analysed. Results: Of 1981 records for severe and uncomplicated malaria analysed, 56% of cases were uncomplicated and 14% had severe malaria. The type of malaria was not recorded for 30% of cases. Approximately 71% of cases were confirmed by rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) alone, 3% by microscopy alone and 26% by both RDT and microscopy. Of the uncomplicated cases, 93% were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) alone, 5% with quinine alone and 2% with AL and quinine. Amongst the severe cases, 11% were treated with AL alone, 44% with quinine alone and 45% with AL and quinine. For severe malaria, clinics and health centres prescribed AL alone more often than hospitals (respectively 13%, 12% and 4%, P = 0.03). Conclusion: RDTs and/or microscopy results are used at all facilities to inform treatment. Poor recording of malaria type causes difficulties in assessing the prescription of antimalarial drugs.