Browsing Operational Research Courses by Journal
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Alarming prevalence and clustering of Modifiable Noncommunicable Disease risk factors among adults in Bhutan: a nationwide cross-sectional community surveyBhutan is currently facing a double burden of non-communicable (NCDs) and communicable diseases, with rising trends of NCDs. The 2014 STEPS survey identified high prevalence of several NCD risk factors; however, associations with socio-demographic characteristics as well as clustering of risk factors were not assessed. This study aimed to determine the distribution and clustering of modifiable NCD risk factors among adults in Bhutan and their demographic and social determinants.
Body and mind: retention in antiretroviral treatment care is improved by mental health training of care providers in EthiopiaEthiopia has achieved a high coverage of antiretroviral treatment (ART), but maintaining lifelong care is still a great challenge. Mental illnesses often co-exist with HIV/AIDS and may compromise the retention on ART. In order to improve prolonged retention in ART care, basic training in mental health care was introduced for ART providers, but this hasn't been evaluated yet. The aim of this study was to examine if this training has improved patient retention in care.
Frequency, characteristics and hospital outcomes of road traffic accidents and their victims in Guinea: a three-year retrospective study from 2015 to 2017Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA) remain a global public health concern in developing countries. The aim of the study was to document the frequency, characteristics and hospital outcomes of road traffic accidents in Guinea from 2015 to 2017. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using medical records of RTA victims from 20 hospitals and a cross-sectional study of RTA cases from eight police stations in eight districts in Guinea, West Africa. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, trends of RTA, a sequence of interrupted time-series models and a segmented ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression. Results: Police stations recorded 3,140 RTA over 3 years with an overall annual increase in RTA rates from 14.0 per 100,000 population in 2015, to 19.2 per 100,000 population in 2016 (37.1% annual increase), to 28.7 per 100,000 population in 2017 (49.5% annual increase). Overall, the injury rates in 2016 and 2017 were .05 per 100,000 population higher on average per month (95% CI: .03-.07). Deaths from RTA showed no statistical differences over the 3 years and no association of RTA trends with season was found. Overall, 27,751 RTA victims were admitted to emergency units, representing 22% of all hospitals admissions. Most victims were males (71%) and young (33%). Deaths represented 1.4% of all RTA victims. 90% of deaths occurred before or within 24 h of hospital admission. Factors associated with death were being male (p = .04), being a child under 15 years (p = .045) or an elderly person aged ≥65 years (p < .001), and having head injury or coma (p < .001). Conclusions: RTA rates in Guinea are increasing. There is a need for implementing multisectoral RTA prevention measures in Guinea.