• Factors associated with death and loss to follow-up in children on antiretroviral care in Mingalardon Specialist Hospital, Myanmar, 2006-2016

      Kaung Nyunt, KK; Han, WW; Satyanarayana, S; Isaakidis, P; Hone, S; Khaing, AA; Nguyen Binh, H; Oo, HN (Public Library of Science, 2018-04-05)
      Myanmar National AIDS programme's priority is to improve the survival of all people living with HIV by providing anti-retroviral therapy (ART) care. More than 7200 children (aged <15 years) have been enrolled into ART care from 2005 to 2016. A previous study showed that ~11% children on ART care had either died or were lost to follow-up by 60 months. Factors associated with death and lost-to follow-up (adverse outcomes) have not been previously studied.
    • Factors Associated with Unfavorable Treatment Outcomes in New and Previously Treated TB Patients in Uzbekistan: A Five Year Countrywide Study

      Gadoev, J; Asadov, D; Tillashaykhov, M; Tayler-Smith, K; Isaakidis, P; Dadu, A; Colombani, P d; Gudmund Hinderaker, S; Parpieva, N; Ulmasova, D; Jalolov, A; Hamraev, A; Ali, E; Boom, M v d; Hammerich, A; Gozalov, O; Dara, M (Public Library of Science, 2015-06-15)
      TB is one of the main health priorities in Uzbekistan and relatively high rates of unfavorable treatment outcomes have recently been reported. This requires closer analysis to explain the reasons and recommend interventions to improve the situation. Thus, by using countrywide data this study sought to determine trends in unfavorable outcomes (lost-to-follow-ups, deaths and treatment failures) and describe their associations with socio-demographic and clinical factors.
    • Fostering interest in research: evaluation of an introductory research seminar at hospitals in rural Rwanda

      Iribagiza, M K; Manikuzwe, A; Aquino, T; Amoroso, C; Zachariah, R; van Griensven, J; Schneider, S; Finnegan, K; Cortas, C; Kamanzi, E; Hamon, J K; Hedt-Gauthier, B L (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2014-12-21)
    • A four-year nationwide molecular epidemiological study in Estonia: risk factors for tuberculosis transmission

      Toit, K; Altraja, A; Acosta, C D; Viiklepp, P; Kremer, K; Kummik, T; Danilovitš, M; Van den Bergh, R; Harries, A D; Supply, P (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2014-10-21)
    • From diagnosis to case investigation for malaria elimination in Swaziland: is reporting and response timely?

      Dlamini, N; Zulu, Z; Kunene, S; Geoffroy, E; Ntshalintshali, N; Owiti, P; Sikhondze, W; Makadzange, K; Zachariah, R (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2018-04-25)
      Background: Swaziland is one of the southern African countries that aim to eliminate malaria by 2020. In 2010, the country introduced an Immediate Disease Notification System (IDNS) for immediate reporting of notifiable diseases, including malaria. Health facilities are to report malaria cases within 24 h through a toll-free telephone number (977), triggering an alert for case investigation at the patient's household within 48 h. We assessed the completeness of reporting in the IDNS, the subsequent case investigation, and whether it was done within the stipulated timelines. Methods: A cross-sectional study using routine country-wide data. Results: Of 1991 malaria cases notified between July 2011 and June 2015, 76% were reported in the IDNS, of which 68% were investigated-a shortfall of 24% in reporting and 32% in case investigations. Of the 76% of cases reported through the IDNS, 62% were reported within 24 h and 20% were investigated within 48 h. These shortcomings were most pronounced in hospitals and private facilities. Investigated cases (n = 1346) were classified as follows: 60% imported, 35% local and 5% undetermined. Conclusion: The utilisation of the IDNS for case reporting to trigger investigation is crucial for active surveillance. There is a need to address the reporting and investigation gaps identified to ensure that malaria cases receive appropriate interventions.
    • High Mortality in Tuberculosis Patients Despite HIV Interventions in Swaziland

      Mchunu, G; van Griensven, J; Hinderaker, S G; Kizito, W; Sikhondze, W; Manzi, M; Dlamini, T; Harries, A D (International Union Against TB and Lung Disease, 2016-06-21)
    • High quit rate among smokers with tuberculosis in a modified smoking cessation programme in Dhaka, Bangladesh

      Siddiquea, B N; Islam, M A; Bam, T S; Satyanarayana, S; Enarson, D A; Reid, A J; Husain, Md A; Ahmed, S M; Ferdous, S; Ishikawa, N (2013-08)
    • High time to use rapid tests to detect multidrug resistance in sputum smear-negative tuberculosis in Belarus

      Rusovich, V; Kumar, A M V; Skrahina, A; Hurevich, H; Astrauko, A; de Colombani, P; Tayler-Smith, K; Dara, M; Zachariah, R (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2014-12-21)
    • HIV Testing, Antiretroviral Therapy, and Treatment Outcomes in New Cases of Tuberculosis in Brazil, 2011

      Torrens, A; Bartholomay, P; Silva, S; Khogali, M; Verdonck, K; Bissell, K (Scielo Public Health, 2016-01-01)
      Objective To assess the implementation of HIV-related interventions for patients with tuberculosis (TB), as well as TB treatment outcomes in patients coinfected with HIV in Brazil in 2011. Methods This was a cross-sectional, operational research study of HIV-related interventions among TB cases and the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of TB-HIV coinfected patients. It also used a retrospective cohort design to determine the association between antiretroviral therapy (ART) and favorable TB treatment outcomes. The source of data was a linkage of 2011 administrative health databases used by the National TB and HIV/AIDS Programs. Results Of 73 741 new cases of TB reported, 63.6% (46 865 patients) were tested for HIV; 10.3% were positive. Of patients with HIV, 45.9% or 3 502 were on ART. TB favorable outcome was achieved in 63.1% or 2 205 coinfected patients on ART and in only 35.4% or 1 459 of those not on ART. On multivariate analysis, the relative risk for the association between ART and TB treatment success was 1.72 (95% Confidence Interval = 1.64-1.81). Conclusions The linkage between national TB and HIV datasets has created a convenient baseline for ongoing monitoring of HIV testing, ART use, and TB treatment outcomes among coinfected patients. The low rates of HIV screening and ART use in 2011 need to be improved. The association between ART and treatment success adds to the evidence supporting timely initiation of ART for all patients with TB-HIV coinfection.
    • How effective is the integration of facility and community-based management of severe acute malnutrition in India?

      Kumar, B; Shrivastava, J; Satyanarayana, S; Reid, A J; Ali, E; Zodpey, S; Agnani, M (2013-12-21)
    • How has the Zimbabwe mycobacterial culture and drug sensitivity testing system among re-treatment tuberculosis patients functioned during the scale-up of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay?

      Timire, C; Takarinda, KC; Harries, AD; Mutunzi, H; Manyame-Murwira, B; Kumar, AMV; Sandy, C (Oxford University Press, 2018-06-01)
      In Zimbabwe, while the Xpert MTB/RIF assay is being used for diagnosing tuberculosis and rifampicin-resistance, re-treatment tuberculosis (TB) patients are still expected to have culture and drug sensitivity testing (CDST) performed at national reference laboratories for confirmation. The study aim was to document the Xpert MTB/RIF assay scale-up and assess how the CDST system functioned for re-treatment TB patients.
    • How well are asthma treatment cards filled out in public health centres in Gazeera State, Sudan?

      Kodouda, S F; Zachariah, R; Khogali, M; van Grievensen, J; Saeed, M; Ibrahim, E H; Schneider, S; Adulazeem, S; El Sadig, H A; Atta, R; Mahgoub, N G; El Sony, A I (The Union, 2014-06-21)
    • "I Wasted 3 Years, Thinking It's Not a Problem": Patient and Health System Delays in Diagnosis of Leprosy in India: A Mixed-Methods Study

      Muthuvel, T; Govindarajulu, S; Isaakidis, P; Shewade, HD; Rokade, V; Singh, R; Kamble, S (Public Library of Science, 2017-01-12)
      Worldwide, leprosy is one of the major causes of preventable disability. India contributes to 60% of global leprosy burden. With increasing numbers of leprosy with grade 2 disability (visible disability) at diagnosis, we aimed to determine risk factors associated with grade 2 disability among new cases and explore patients and providers' perspectives into reasons for late presentation.
    • Infective endocarditis in Ethiopian children: a hospital based review of cases in Addis Ababa

      Moges, T; Gedlu, E; Isaakidis, P; Kumar, A; Den, R V; Khogali, M; Mekasha, A; Hinderaker, S G (African Field Epidemiology Network, 2015-01-28)
    • Influence of the 2014-2015 Ebola Outbreak on the Vaccination of Children in a Rural District of Guinea

      Camara, B; Delamou, A; Diro, E; El Ayadi, A; Béavogui, A; Sidibé, S; Grovogui, F; Takarinda, K; Kolié, D; Sandouno, S; Okumura, J; Baldé, M; Van Griensven, J; Zachariah, R (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2017-06-21)
      Setting: All health centres in Macenta District, rural Guinea. Objective: To compare stock-outs of vaccines, vaccine stock cards and the administration of various childhood vaccines across the pre-Ebola, Ebola and post-Ebola virus disease periods. Design: This was an ecological study. Results: Similar levels of stock-outs were observed for all vaccines (bacille Calmette-Guérin [BCG], pentavalent, polio, measles, yellow fever) in the pre-Ebola and Ebola periods (respectively 2760 and 2706 facility days of stock-outs), with some variation by vaccine. Post-Ebola, there was a 65-fold reduction in stock-outs compared to pre-Ebola. Overall, 24 facility-months of vaccine stock card stock-outs were observed during the pre-Ebola period, which increased to 65 facility-months of stock-outs during the Ebola outbreak period; no such stock-out occurred in the post-Ebola period. Apart from yellow fever and measles, vaccine administration declined universally during the peak outbreak period (August-November 2014). Complete cessation of vaccine administration for BCG and a prominent low for polio (86% decrease) were observed in April 2014, corresponding to vaccine stock-outs. Post-Ebola, overall vaccine administration did not recover to pre-Ebola levels, with the highest gaps seen in polio and pentavalent vaccines, which had shortages of respectively 40% and 38%. Conclusion: These findings highlight the need to sustain vaccination activities in Guinea so that they remain resilient and responsive, irrespective of disease outbreaks.
    • Integration of tobacco cessation and tuberculosis management by NGOs in urban India: a mixed-methods study

      Gupte, HA; Zachariah, R; Sagili, KD; Thawal, V; Chaudhuri, L; Verma, H; Dongre, A; Malekar, A; Rigotti, NA (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2018-06-21)
    • Intensified Tuberculosis Case Finding among Malnourished Children in Nutritional Rehabilitation Centres of Karnataka, India: Missed Opportunities

      Bhat, P G; Kumar, A M V; Naik, B; Satyanarayana, S; Kg, D; Nair, S A; MD, S; Heldal, E; Enarson, D A; Reid, A J (Public Library of Science, 2013)
      Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is the most serious form of malnutrition affecting children under-five and is associated with many infectious diseases including Tuberculosis (TB). In India, nutritional rehabilitation centres (NRCs) have been recently established for the management of SAM including TB. The National TB Programme (NTP) in India has introduced a revised algorithm for diagnosing paediatric TB. We aimed to examine whether NRCs adhered to these guidelines in diagnosing TB among SAM children.
    • Intensive-Phase Treatment Outcomes among Hospitalized Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients: Results from a Nationwide Cohort in Nigeria

      Oladimeji, O; Isaakidis, P; Obasanya, O J; Eltayeb, O; Khogali, M; Van den Bergh, R; Kumar, A M V; Hinderaker, S G; Abdurrahman, S T; Lawson, L; Cuevas, L E (Public Library of Science, 2014-04)
      Nigeria is faced with a high burden of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Treatment outcomes among MDR-TB patients registered across the globe have been poor, partly due to high loss-to-follow-up. To address this challenge, MDR-TB patients in Nigeria are hospitalized during the intensive-phase(IP) of treatment (first 6-8 months) and are provided with a package of care including standardized MDR-TB treatment regimen, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CPT) for HIV-infected patients, nutritional and psychosocial support. In this study, we report the end-IP treatment outcomes among them.
    • Intermittent Preventive Treatment and Bed Nets Uptake Among Pregnant Women in Kenya

      Karoki, SM; Kariuki, L; Owiti, PO; Takarinda, KC; Kizito, W; Edwards, JK; Ogutu, O; Waqo, E (African Journals Online, 2016-10)
    • International Non-Governmental Organizations' Provision of Community-Based Tuberculosis Care for Hard-To-Reach Populations in Myanmar, 2013-2014

      Soe, KT; Saw, S; van Griensven, J; Zhou, S; Win, L; Chinnakali, P; Shah, S; Mon, MM; Aung, ST (BioMed Central, 2017-03-24)
      National tuberculosis (TB) programs increasingly engage with international non-governmental organizations (INGOs), especially to provide TB care in complex settings where community involvement might be required. In Myanmar, however, there is limited data on how such INGO community-based programs are organized and how effective they are. In this study, we describe four INGO strategies for providing community-based TB care to hard-to-reach populations in Myanmar, and assess their contribution to TB case detection.