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dc.contributor.authorde Jong, K
dc.contributor.authorFord, N
dc.contributor.authorKam, S
dc.contributor.authorLokuge, K
dc.contributor.authorFromm, S
dc.contributor.authorvan Galen, R
dc.contributor.authorReilley, B
dc.contributor.authorKleber, R
dc.date.accessioned2008-11-04T10:01:07Z
dc.date.available2008-11-04T10:01:07Z
dc.date.issued2008-10-14
dc.identifier.citationConflict in the Indian Kashmir Valley I: exposure to violence. 2008, 2:10notConfl Healthen
dc.identifier.issn1752-1505
dc.identifier.pmid18854026
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/1752-1505-2-10
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10144/40200
dc.description.abstractABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: India and Pakistan have disputed ownership of the Kashmir Valley region for many years, resulting in several conflicts since the end of partition in 1947. Very little is known about the prevalence of violence and insecurity in this population. METHODS: We undertook a two-stage cluster household survey in two districts (30 villages) of the Indian part of Kashmir to assess experiences with violence and mental health status among the conflict-affected Kashmiri population. The article presents our findings for confrontations with violence. Data were collected for recent events (last 3 months) and those occurring since the start of the conflict. Informed consent was obtained for all interviews. RESULTS: 510 interviews were completed. Respondents reported frequent direct confrontations with violence since the start of conflict, including exposure to crossfire (85.7%), round up raids (82.7%), the witnessing of torture (66.9%), rape (13.3%), and self-experience of forced labour (33.7%), arrests/kidnapping (16.9%), torture (12.9%), and sexual violence (11.6%). Males reported more confrontations with violence than females, and had an increased likelihood of having directly experienced physical/mental maltreatment (OR 3.9, CI: 2.7-5.7), violation of their modesty (OR 3.6, CI: 1.9-6.8) and injury (OR 3.5, CI: 1.4-8.7). Males also had high odds of self-being arrested/kidnapped (OR 8.0, CI: 4.1-15.5). CONCLUSION: The civilian population in Kashmir is exposed to high levels of violence, as demonstrated by the high frequency of deliberate events as detention, hostage, and torture. The reported violence may result in substantial health, including mental health problems. Males reported significantly more confrontations with almost all violent events; this can be explained by higher participation in outdoor activities.
dc.language.isoenen
dc.rightsArchived via Open Access with thanks to Conflict and Healthen
dc.subjectMental healthen
dc.subjectconflicten
dc.titleConflict in the Indian Kashmir Valley I: exposure to violence.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentMédecins Sans Frontières, Plantage Middenlaan 14, 1018 DD Amsterdam, the Netherlands. kaz.de.jong@amsterdam.msf.org.en
dc.identifier.journalConflict and Healthen
refterms.dateFOA2019-03-04T12:08:52Z
html.description.abstractABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: India and Pakistan have disputed ownership of the Kashmir Valley region for many years, resulting in several conflicts since the end of partition in 1947. Very little is known about the prevalence of violence and insecurity in this population. METHODS: We undertook a two-stage cluster household survey in two districts (30 villages) of the Indian part of Kashmir to assess experiences with violence and mental health status among the conflict-affected Kashmiri population. The article presents our findings for confrontations with violence. Data were collected for recent events (last 3 months) and those occurring since the start of the conflict. Informed consent was obtained for all interviews. RESULTS: 510 interviews were completed. Respondents reported frequent direct confrontations with violence since the start of conflict, including exposure to crossfire (85.7%), round up raids (82.7%), the witnessing of torture (66.9%), rape (13.3%), and self-experience of forced labour (33.7%), arrests/kidnapping (16.9%), torture (12.9%), and sexual violence (11.6%). Males reported more confrontations with violence than females, and had an increased likelihood of having directly experienced physical/mental maltreatment (OR 3.9, CI: 2.7-5.7), violation of their modesty (OR 3.6, CI: 1.9-6.8) and injury (OR 3.5, CI: 1.4-8.7). Males also had high odds of self-being arrested/kidnapped (OR 8.0, CI: 4.1-15.5). CONCLUSION: The civilian population in Kashmir is exposed to high levels of violence, as demonstrated by the high frequency of deliberate events as detention, hostage, and torture. The reported violence may result in substantial health, including mental health problems. Males reported significantly more confrontations with almost all violent events; this can be explained by higher participation in outdoor activities.


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