• Cost of Hospitalization for Non-Communicable Diseases in India: Are We Pro-Poor?

      Tripathy, J P; Prasad, B M; Shewade, H D; Kumar, A M; Zachariah, R; Chadha, S; Tonsing, J; Harries, A D (Wiley-Blackwell, 2016-06-02)
      Objectives: To estimate out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure due to hospitalization from NCDs and its impact on households in India.
    • A First Country-Wide Review of Diabetes Mellitus Care in Bhutan: Time to Do Better

      Zam, K; Kumar, A M; Achanta, S; Bhat, P; Naik, B; Zangpo, K; Dorji, T; Wangdi, Y; Zachariah, R (BMC Public Health, 2015-09-21)
      There is an increasing trend of non-communicable diseases in Bhutan including Diabetes Mellitus (DM). To address this problem, a National Diabetes Control Programme was launched in 1996. There is anecdotal evidence that many patients do not visit the DM clinics regularly, but owing to lack of cohort monitoring, the magnitude of such attrition from care is unknown. Knowledge of the extent of this problem will provide a realistic assessment of the situation on the ground and would be helpful to initiate corrective actions. In this first country-wide audit, we thus aimed to determine among type 2 DM patients registered for care the i) pre-treatment attrition ii) one-year programme outcomes including retention in care, died and Lost-to-follow-up (LTFU, defined as not having visited the clinic at least once within a year of registration) iii) factors associated with attrition from care (death + LTFU) and iv) quality of follow-up care, measured by adherence to recommended patient-monitoring protocols including glycaemic control.