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dc.contributor.authorCarroll, Miles W
dc.contributor.authorMatthews, David A
dc.contributor.authorHiscox, Julian A
dc.contributor.authorElmore, Michael J
dc.contributor.authorPollakis, Georgios
dc.contributor.authorRambaut, Andrew
dc.contributor.authorHewson, Roger
dc.contributor.authorGarcía-Dorival, Isabel
dc.contributor.authorBore, Joseph Akoi
dc.contributor.authorKoundouno, Raymond
dc.contributor.authorAbdellati, Saïd
dc.contributor.authorAfrough, Babak
dc.contributor.authorAiyepada, John
dc.contributor.authorAkhilomen, Patience
dc.contributor.authorAsogun, Danny
dc.contributor.authorAtkinson, Barry
dc.contributor.authorBadusche, Marlis
dc.contributor.authorBah, Amadou
dc.contributor.authorBate, Simon
dc.contributor.authorBaumann, Jan
dc.contributor.authorBecker, Dirk
dc.contributor.authorBecker-Ziaja, Beate
dc.contributor.authorBocquin, Anne
dc.contributor.authorBorremans, Benny
dc.contributor.authorBosworth, Andrew
dc.contributor.authorBoettcher, Jan Peter
dc.contributor.authorCannas, Angela
dc.contributor.authorCarletti, Fabrizio
dc.contributor.authorCastilletti, Concetta
dc.contributor.authorClark, Simon
dc.contributor.authorColavita, Francesca
dc.contributor.authorDiederich, Sandra
dc.contributor.authorDonatus, Adomeh
dc.contributor.authorDuraffour, Sophie
dc.contributor.authorEhichioya, Deborah
dc.contributor.authorEllerbrok, Heinz
dc.contributor.authorFenandez-Garcia, Maria Dolores
dc.contributor.authorFizet, Alexandra
dc.contributor.authorFleischmann, Erna
dc.contributor.authorGryseels, Sophie
dc.contributor.authorHermelink, Antje
dc.contributor.authorHinzmann, Julia
dc.contributor.authorHopf-Guevara, Ute
dc.contributor.authorIghodalo, Yemisi
dc.contributor.authorJameson, Lisa
dc.contributor.authorKelterbaum, Anne
dc.contributor.authorKis, Zoltan
dc.contributor.authorKloth, Stefan
dc.contributor.authorKohl, Claudia
dc.contributor.authorKorva, Miša
dc.contributor.authorKraus, Annette
dc.contributor.authorKuisma, Eeva
dc.contributor.authorKurth, Andreas
dc.contributor.authorLiedigk, Britta
dc.contributor.authorLogue, Christopher H
dc.contributor.authorLüdtke, Anja
dc.contributor.authorMaes, Piet
dc.contributor.authorMcCowen, James
dc.contributor.authorMély, Stéphane
dc.contributor.authorMertens, Marc
dc.contributor.authorMeschi, Silvia
dc.contributor.authorMeyer, Benjamin
dc.contributor.authorMichel, Janine
dc.contributor.authorMolkenthin, Peter
dc.contributor.authorMuñoz-Fontela, César
dc.contributor.authorMuth, Doreen
dc.contributor.authorNewman, Edmund N C
dc.contributor.authorNgabo, Didier
dc.contributor.authorOestereich, Lisa
dc.contributor.authorOkosun, Jennifer
dc.contributor.authorOlokor, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorOmiunu, Racheal
dc.contributor.authorOmomoh, Emmanuel
dc.contributor.authorPallasch, Elisa
dc.contributor.authorPályi, Bernadett
dc.contributor.authorPortmann, Jasmine
dc.contributor.authorPottage, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorPratt, Catherine
dc.contributor.authorPriesnitz, Simone
dc.contributor.authorQuartu, Serena
dc.contributor.authorRappe, Julie
dc.contributor.authorRepits, Johanna
dc.contributor.authorRichter, Martin
dc.contributor.authorRudolf, Martin
dc.contributor.authorSachse, Andreas
dc.contributor.authorSchmidt, Kristina Maria
dc.contributor.authorSchudt, Gordian
dc.contributor.authorStrecker, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorThom, Ruth
dc.contributor.authorThomas, Stephen
dc.contributor.authorTobin, Ekaete
dc.contributor.authorTolley, Howard
dc.contributor.authorTrautner, Jochen
dc.contributor.authorVermoesen, Tine
dc.contributor.authorVitoriano, Inês
dc.contributor.authorWagner, Matthias
dc.contributor.authorWolff, Svenja
dc.contributor.authorYue, Constanze
dc.contributor.authorCapobianchi, Maria Rosaria
dc.contributor.authorKretschmer, Birte
dc.contributor.authorHall, Yper
dc.contributor.authorKenny, John G
dc.contributor.authorRickett, Natasha Y
dc.contributor.authorDudas, Gytis
dc.contributor.authorColtart, Cordelia E M
dc.contributor.authorKerber, Romy
dc.contributor.authorSteer, Damien
dc.contributor.authorWright, Callum
dc.contributor.authorSenyah, Francis
dc.contributor.authorKeita, Sakoba
dc.contributor.authorDrury, Patrick
dc.contributor.authorDiallo, Boubacar
dc.contributor.authorde Clerck, Hilde
dc.contributor.authorVan Herp, Michel
dc.contributor.authorSprecher, Armand
dc.contributor.authorTraore, Alexis
dc.contributor.authorDiakite, Mandiou
dc.contributor.authorKonde, Mandy Kader
dc.contributor.authorKoivogui, Lamine
dc.contributor.authorMagassouba, N'Faly
dc.contributor.authorAvšič-Županc, Tatjana
dc.contributor.authorNitsche, Andreas
dc.contributor.authorStrasser, Marc
dc.contributor.authorIppolito, Giuseppe
dc.contributor.authorBecker, Stephan
dc.contributor.authorStoecker, Kilian
dc.contributor.authorGabriel, Martin
dc.contributor.authorRaoul, Hervé
dc.contributor.authorDi Caro, Antonino
dc.contributor.authorWölfel, Roman
dc.contributor.authorFormenty, Pierre
dc.contributor.authorGünther, Stephan
dc.date.accessioned2015-08-20T18:41:48Z
dc.date.available2015-08-20T18:41:48Z
dc.date.issued2015-06-17
dc.identifier.citationTemporal and spatial analysis of the 2014-2015 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa. 2015: Natureen_GB
dc.identifier.issn1476-4687
dc.identifier.pmid26083749
dc.identifier.doi10.1038/nature14594
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10144/575409
dc.description.abstractWest Africa is currently witnessing the most extensive Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak so far recorded. Until now, there have been 27,013 reported cases and 11,134 deaths. The origin of the virus is thought to have been a zoonotic transmission from a bat to a twoyear-old boy in December 2013 (ref. 2). From this index case the virus was spread by human-to-human contact throughout Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. However, the origin of the particular virus in each country and time of transmission is not known and currently relies on epidemiological analysis, which may be unreliable owing to the difficulties of obtaining patient information. Here we trace the genetic evolution of EBOV in the current outbreak that has resulted in multiple lineages. Deep sequencing of 179 patient samples processed by the European Mobile Laboratory, the first diagnostics unit to be deployed to the epicentre of the outbreak in Guinea, reveals an epidemiological and evolutionary history of the epidemic from March 2014 to January 2015. Analysis of EBOV genome evolution has also benefited from a similar sequencing effort of patient samples from Sierra Leone. Our results confirm that the EBOV from Guinea moved into Sierra Leone, most likely in April or early May. The viruses of the Guinea/Sierra Leone lineage mixed around June/July 2014. Viral sequences covering August, September and October 2014 indicate that this lineage evolved independently within Guinea. These data can be used in conjunction with epidemiological information to test retrospectively the effectiveness of control measures, and provides an unprecedented window into the evolution of an ongoing viral haemorrhagic fever outbreak.
dc.languageENG
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherMacmillanen_GB
dc.rightsArchived on this site with permission from Macmillan Publishers' Ltd. open accessen_GB
dc.titleTemporal and spatial analysis of the 2014-2015 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africaen
dc.identifier.journalNatureen_GB
refterms.dateFOA2019-03-04T12:33:25Z
html.description.abstractWest Africa is currently witnessing the most extensive Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak so far recorded. Until now, there have been 27,013 reported cases and 11,134 deaths. The origin of the virus is thought to have been a zoonotic transmission from a bat to a twoyear-old boy in December 2013 (ref. 2). From this index case the virus was spread by human-to-human contact throughout Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. However, the origin of the particular virus in each country and time of transmission is not known and currently relies on epidemiological analysis, which may be unreliable owing to the difficulties of obtaining patient information. Here we trace the genetic evolution of EBOV in the current outbreak that has resulted in multiple lineages. Deep sequencing of 179 patient samples processed by the European Mobile Laboratory, the first diagnostics unit to be deployed to the epicentre of the outbreak in Guinea, reveals an epidemiological and evolutionary history of the epidemic from March 2014 to January 2015. Analysis of EBOV genome evolution has also benefited from a similar sequencing effort of patient samples from Sierra Leone. Our results confirm that the EBOV from Guinea moved into Sierra Leone, most likely in April or early May. The viruses of the Guinea/Sierra Leone lineage mixed around June/July 2014. Viral sequences covering August, September and October 2014 indicate that this lineage evolved independently within Guinea. These data can be used in conjunction with epidemiological information to test retrospectively the effectiveness of control measures, and provides an unprecedented window into the evolution of an ongoing viral haemorrhagic fever outbreak.


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