National Antimicrobial Consumption: Analysis of Central Warehouses Supplies to In-Patient Care Health Facilities from 2017 to 2019 in Uganda.
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AbstractAntimicrobial consumption (AMC) surveillance at global and national levels is necessary to inform relevant interventions and policies. This study analyzed central warehouse antimicrobial supplies to health facilities providing inpatient care in Uganda. We collected data on antimicrobials supplied by National Medical Stores (NMS) and Joint Medical Stores (JMS) to 442 health facilities from 2017 to 2019. Data were analyzed using the World Health Organization methodology for AMC surveillance. Total quantity of antimicrobials in defined daily dose (DDD) were determined, classified into Access, Watch, Reserve (AWaRe) and AMC density was calculated. There was an increase in total DDDs distributed by NMS in 2019 by 4,166,572 DDD. In 2019, Amoxicillin (27%), Cotrimoxazole (20%), and Metronidazole (12%) were the most supplied antimicrobials by NMS while Doxycycline (10%), Amoxicillin (19%), and Metronidazole (10%) were the most supplied by JMS. The majority of antimicrobials supplied by NMS (81%) and JMS (66%) were from the Access category. Increasing antimicrobial consumption density (DDD per 100 patient days) was observed from national referral to lower-level health facilities. Except for NMS in 2019, total antimicrobials supplied by NMS and JMS remained the same from 2017 to 2019. This serves as a baseline for future assessments and monitoring of stewardship interventions.
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Target Product Profile for a Diagnostic Assay to Differentiate between Bacterial and Non-Bacterial Infections and Reduce Antimicrobial Overuse in Resource-Limited Settings: An Expert ConsensusDittrich, S; Tadesse, BT; Moussy, F; Chua, A; Zorzet, A; Tängdén, T; Dolinger, DL; Page, AL; Crump, JA; D'Acremont, V; et al. (Public Library of Science, 2016-08-25)Acute fever is one of the most common presenting symptoms globally. In order to reduce the empiric use of antimicrobial drugs and improve outcomes, it is essential to improve diagnostic capabilities. In the absence of microbiology facilities in low-income settings, an assay to distinguish bacterial from non-bacterial causes would be a critical first step. To ensure that patient and market needs are met, the requirements of such a test should be specified in a target product profile (TPP). To identify minimal/optimal characteristics for a bacterial vs. non-bacterial fever test, experts from academia and international organizations with expertise in infectious diseases, diagnostic test development, laboratory medicine, global health, and health economics were convened. Proposed TPPs were reviewed by this working group, and consensus characteristics were defined. The working group defined non-severely ill, non-malaria infected children as the target population for the desired assay. To provide access to the most patients, the test should be deployable to community health centers and informal health settings, and staff should require <2 days of training to perform the assay. Further, given that the aim is to reduce inappropriate antimicrobial use as well as to deliver appropriate treatment for patients with bacterial infections, the group agreed on minimal diagnostic performance requirements of >90% and >80% for sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Other key characteristics, to account for the challenging environment at which the test is targeted, included: i) time-to-result <10 min (but maximally <2 hrs); ii) storage conditions at 0-40°C, ≤90% non-condensing humidity with a minimal shelf life of 12 months; iii) operational conditions of 5-40°C, ≤90% non-condensing humidity; and iv) minimal sample collection needs (50-100μL, capillary blood). This expert approach to define assay requirements for a bacterial vs. non-bacterial assay should guide product development, and enable targeted and timely efforts by industry partners and academic institutions.
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